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Common diseases 2 SAPPO Training Course. Contents Skin problems Skin problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems.

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Presentation on theme: "Common diseases 2 SAPPO Training Course. Contents Skin problems Skin problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common diseases 2 SAPPO Training Course

2 Contents Skin problems Skin problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems Respiratory problems Respiratory problems Fever Fever Lameness and paralysis Lameness and paralysis Pale pigs – anaemia Pale pigs – anaemia Reproductive problems Reproductive problems

3 Skin problems - Mange Mange Mange Caused by tiny mites (smaller than a full stop) that live in the skinCaused by tiny mites (smaller than a full stop) that live in the skin Pigs scratch all the time and have crusted sores all over the bodyPigs scratch all the time and have crusted sores all over the body Use dips, sprays or injections recommended for mange controlUse dips, sprays or injections recommended for mange control

4 Skin problems - Other Other skin parasites (pig lice, fleas, ticks, flies) feed on blood and do not always cause disease but if present in large numbers can cause the pig discomfort and excessive blood loss – use dips/sprays Other skin parasites (pig lice, fleas, ticks, flies) feed on blood and do not always cause disease but if present in large numbers can cause the pig discomfort and excessive blood loss – use dips/sprays Wounds – use wound spray, protect from flies Wounds – use wound spray, protect from flies Sunburn – provide sufficient shade Sunburn – provide sufficient shade Infectious diseases (greasy pig disease, diamond skin disease = erysipelas) – prevent by good hygiene, vaccinate against erysipelas, treat with antibiotics Infectious diseases (greasy pig disease, diamond skin disease = erysipelas) – prevent by good hygiene, vaccinate against erysipelas, treat with antibiotics

5 Other skin problems A – treated wound A – treated wound B – Sunburned piglet B – Sunburned piglet C – Erysipelas (diamond skin disease) C – Erysipelas (diamond skin disease) D – Greasy pig disease D – Greasy pig disease

6 Diarrhoea (scours) Unweaned piglets: infectious causes Unweaned piglets: infectious causes Weaners: change from milk to solid food, infectious causes especially colibacillosis Weaners: change from milk to solid food, infectious causes especially colibacillosis Growers: infectious causes (swine dysentery, ileitis) Growers: infectious causes (swine dysentery, ileitis) Prevent by good hygiene and diet, keep piglets warm, avoid sudden change in feed, vaccination and treatment as recommended Prevent by good hygiene and diet, keep piglets warm, avoid sudden change in feed, vaccination and treatment as recommended

7 Other abdominal problems Worms – cause poor growth Worms – cause poor growth Vomiting Vomiting Infectious diseases: prevent by good biosecurityInfectious diseases: prevent by good biosecurity Stomach ulcers: prevent by balanced diet, feed not too fineStomach ulcers: prevent by balanced diet, feed not too fine Poisoning: keep poisons safe, make sure feed is not too salty, unlimited access to waterPoisoning: keep poisons safe, make sure feed is not too salty, unlimited access to water Constipation Constipation Sows in late pregnancy: feed bran and/or green feedSows in late pregnancy: feed bran and/or green feed

8 Other abdominal problems Rectal prolapse Rectal prolapse Causes are abdominal pressure, mouldy feedCauses are abdominal pressure, mouldy feed Isolate pig, feed wet feed, leave to healIsolate pig, feed wet feed, leave to heal Abdominal pain – arched back, groaning Abdominal pain – arched back, groaning Causes are stomach ulcers, organ displacement, constipation, diseaseCauses are stomach ulcers, organ displacement, constipation, disease Organ displacement Organ displacement Usually spleen or stomach in sows after farrowing, invariably fatalUsually spleen or stomach in sows after farrowing, invariably fatal Prevent by calm conditions, feeding 3 x per dayPrevent by calm conditions, feeding 3 x per day

9 Abdominal problems A – scours A – scours B – constipation B – constipation C – large roundworm C – large roundworm D – rectal prolapse D – rectal prolapse

10 Airway problems Clinical signs are coughing, sneezing, discharge from eyes or nose, noisy breathing Clinical signs are coughing, sneezing, discharge from eyes or nose, noisy breathing Atrophic rhinitis (leads to a deformed snout) Atrophic rhinitis (leads to a deformed snout) Prevent with good ventilation, reduce dustPrevent with good ventilation, reduce dust Where the problem exists, can vaccinate sows and use in-feed medicationWhere the problem exists, can vaccinate sows and use in-feed medication

11 Pneumonia Causes include viruses, bacteria, worms, inhalation of foreign material, bad ventilation and dust or ammonia build-up Causes include viruses, bacteria, worms, inhalation of foreign material, bad ventilation and dust or ammonia build-up Cold and draughts predispose pigs to pneumonia Cold and draughts predispose pigs to pneumonia Signs include fever, slow or uneven growth, coughing, difficult breathing Signs include fever, slow or uneven growth, coughing, difficult breathing Prevent by good hygiene, clean dry environment, de-worming; monitor lungs of slaughtered pigs for signs of chronic pneumonia Prevent by good hygiene, clean dry environment, de-worming; monitor lungs of slaughtered pigs for signs of chronic pneumonia Treat infectious causes with antibiotics Treat infectious causes with antibiotics

12 Fever Fever is a sign that the body temperature is abnormally high Fever is a sign that the body temperature is abnormally high Signs are skin flushing, not eating, panting, tremors, lying down, not wanting to move, pigs huddling together Signs are skin flushing, not eating, panting, tremors, lying down, not wanting to move, pigs huddling together Always a sign of a serious disease or problem Always a sign of a serious disease or problem

13 Infectious causes of fever May be other signs e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea, coughing, difficult breathing May be other signs e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea, coughing, difficult breathing Bacterial diseases (septicaemia, pneumonia) Bacterial diseases (septicaemia, pneumonia) Often one age group affected, usually younger pigsOften one age group affected, usually younger pigs May respond to antibiotic treatmentMay respond to antibiotic treatment Viral diseases (African or classical swine fever, PRRS) Viral diseases (African or classical swine fever, PRRS) May affect all age groupsMay affect all age groups No treatment possibleNo treatment possible These diseases must be reported (see notifiable diseases)These diseases must be reported (see notifiable diseases)

14 Heat stroke Usually affects adult pigs Usually affects adult pigs Occurs on very hot days if the pigs have no shade, housing becomes very hot, or they are transported when it is hot Occurs on very hot days if the pigs have no shade, housing becomes very hot, or they are transported when it is hot Pigs become recumbent, pant, do not want to move, no other signs of disease Pigs become recumbent, pant, do not want to move, no other signs of disease Throw as much cool water as possible over them, arrange shade or move them to a cooler area Throw as much cool water as possible over them, arrange shade or move them to a cooler area Transport pigs in the cool part of the day or at night, cover the vehicle but ensure ventilation, do not stop on the way Transport pigs in the cool part of the day or at night, cover the vehicle but ensure ventilation, do not stop on the way

15 Lameness and Paralysis Lameness – pigs limping, holding a foot of the ground, unable to get up, swollen joints Lameness – pigs limping, holding a foot of the ground, unable to get up, swollen joints Sore feet or legs due to arthritis, injury, bone problems, cracked or split clawsSore feet or legs due to arthritis, injury, bone problems, cracked or split claws Paralysis – pigs unable to move part or whole of body Paralysis – pigs unable to move part or whole of body Usually due to spinal injury or to poisoningUsually due to spinal injury or to poisoning Cull pig unless the problem can be treated Cull pig unless the problem can be treated

16 Lame pig

17 Pale pigs - Anaemia Iron deficiency Iron deficiency Young piglets on cement: give iron injection in first 7 days of life, or dump red soil in pen – it contains iron and anaemic pigs will eat itYoung piglets on cement: give iron injection in first 7 days of life, or dump red soil in pen – it contains iron and anaemic pigs will eat it Blood loss Blood loss Through stomach ulcers, bloody diarrhoea, parasitesThrough stomach ulcers, bloody diarrhoea, parasites Treat intestinal infections, ulcers, parasitesTreat intestinal infections, ulcers, parasites

18 Reproductive problems Infertility – no piglets: Infertility – no piglets: Sow infertile: not cycling, or diseasedSow infertile: not cycling, or diseased Make sure gilt/sow is coming on heat – test by firm pressure on the back when standing Make sure gilt/sow is coming on heat – test by firm pressure on the back when standing Check for genital discharges and urinary problems Check for genital discharges and urinary problems Boar infertilityBoar infertility Make sure that mating is taking place Make sure that mating is taking place If not the boar may have back or leg pain or poor libido If not the boar may have back or leg pain or poor libido Pre-natal deathPre-natal death Hot weather, too few foetuses (less than 4), or a disease can cause piglets to be resorbed in early pregnancy Hot weather, too few foetuses (less than 4), or a disease can cause piglets to be resorbed in early pregnancy

19 Reproductive problems Abortions and stillbirths – piglets are aborted during pregnancy or born dead at term (aborted piglets not always seen) Abortions and stillbirths – piglets are aborted during pregnancy or born dead at term (aborted piglets not always seen) Abortions: various infectious diseases, hormonal failure, metritis, mouldy feed, constipation, sunburn or excessive heat, old ageAbortions: various infectious diseases, hormonal failure, metritis, mouldy feed, constipation, sunburn or excessive heat, old age Stillbirths: various infectious diseases, delayed or difficult birth process (more often in older sows)Stillbirths: various infectious diseases, delayed or difficult birth process (more often in older sows) Unless fertility problems can be resolved easily, it is better to cull infertile sows and boars; do not let sows or boars get too old Unless fertility problems can be resolved easily, it is better to cull infertile sows and boars; do not let sows or boars get too old

20 Any Questions?


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