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Common diseases 2 SAPPO Training Course.

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Presentation on theme: "Common diseases 2 SAPPO Training Course."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common diseases 2 SAPPO Training Course

2 Contents Skin problems Diarrhoea/gastro-intestinal problems
Respiratory problems Fever Lameness and paralysis Pale pigs – anaemia Reproductive problems

3 Skin problems - Mange Mange
Caused by tiny mites (smaller than a full stop) that live in the skin Pigs scratch all the time and have crusted sores all over the body Use dips, sprays or injections recommended for mange control

4 Skin problems - Other Other skin parasites (pig lice, fleas, ticks, flies) feed on blood and do not always cause disease but if present in large numbers can cause the pig discomfort and excessive blood loss – use dips/sprays Wounds – use wound spray, protect from flies Sunburn – provide sufficient shade Infectious diseases (greasy pig disease, diamond skin disease = erysipelas) – prevent by good hygiene, vaccinate against erysipelas, treat with antibiotics

5 Other skin problems A B C D A – treated wound B – Sunburned piglet
C – Erysipelas (diamond skin disease) D – Greasy pig disease A B C D

6 Diarrhoea (scours) Unweaned piglets: infectious causes
Weaners: change from milk to solid food, infectious causes especially colibacillosis Growers: infectious causes (swine dysentery, ileitis) Prevent by good hygiene and diet, keep piglets warm, avoid sudden change in feed, vaccination and treatment as recommended

7 Other abdominal problems
Worms – cause poor growth Vomiting Infectious diseases: prevent by good biosecurity Stomach ulcers: prevent by balanced diet, feed not too fine Poisoning: keep poisons safe, make sure feed is not too salty, unlimited access to water Constipation Sows in late pregnancy: feed bran and/or green feed

8 Other abdominal problems
Rectal prolapse Causes are abdominal pressure, mouldy feed Isolate pig, feed wet feed, leave to heal Abdominal pain – arched back, groaning Causes are stomach ulcers, organ displacement, constipation, disease Organ displacement Usually spleen or stomach in sows after farrowing, invariably fatal Prevent by calm conditions, feeding 3 x per day

9 Abdominal problems A B D C A – scours B – constipation
C – large roundworm D – rectal prolapse A B D C

10 Airway problems Clinical signs are coughing, sneezing, discharge from eyes or nose, noisy breathing Atrophic rhinitis (leads to a deformed snout) Prevent with good ventilation, reduce dust Where the problem exists, can vaccinate sows and use in-feed medication

11 Pneumonia Causes include viruses, bacteria, worms, inhalation of foreign material, bad ventilation and dust or ammonia build-up Cold and draughts predispose pigs to pneumonia Signs include fever, slow or uneven growth, coughing, difficult breathing Prevent by good hygiene, clean dry environment, de-worming; monitor lungs of slaughtered pigs for signs of chronic pneumonia Treat infectious causes with antibiotics

12 Fever Fever is a sign that the body temperature is abnormally high
Signs are skin flushing, not eating, panting, tremors, lying down, not wanting to move, pigs huddling together Always a sign of a serious disease or problem

13 Infectious causes of fever
May be other signs e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea, coughing, difficult breathing Bacterial diseases (septicaemia, pneumonia) Often one age group affected, usually younger pigs May respond to antibiotic treatment Viral diseases (African or classical swine fever, PRRS) May affect all age groups No treatment possible These diseases must be reported (see notifiable diseases)

14 Heat stroke Usually affects adult pigs
Occurs on very hot days if the pigs have no shade, housing becomes very hot, or they are transported when it is hot Pigs become recumbent, pant, do not want to move, no other signs of disease Throw as much cool water as possible over them, arrange shade or move them to a cooler area Transport pigs in the cool part of the day or at night, cover the vehicle but ensure ventilation, do not stop on the way

15 Lameness and Paralysis
Lameness – pigs limping, holding a foot of the ground, unable to get up, swollen joints Sore feet or legs due to arthritis, injury, bone problems, cracked or split claws Paralysis – pigs unable to move part or whole of body Usually due to spinal injury or to poisoning Cull pig unless the problem can be treated

16 Lame pig

17 Pale pigs - Anaemia Iron deficiency Blood loss
Young piglets on cement: give iron injection in first 7 days of life, or dump red soil in pen – it contains iron and anaemic pigs will eat it Blood loss Through stomach ulcers, bloody diarrhoea, parasites Treat intestinal infections, ulcers, parasites

18 Reproductive problems
Infertility – no piglets: Sow infertile: not cycling, or diseased Make sure gilt/sow is coming on heat – test by firm pressure on the back when standing Check for genital discharges and urinary problems Boar infertility Make sure that mating is taking place If not the boar may have back or leg pain or poor libido Pre-natal death Hot weather, too few foetuses (less than 4), or a disease can cause piglets to be resorbed in early pregnancy

19 Reproductive problems
Abortions and stillbirths – piglets are aborted during pregnancy or born dead at term (aborted piglets not always seen) Abortions: various infectious diseases, hormonal failure, metritis, mouldy feed, constipation, sunburn or excessive heat, old age Stillbirths: various infectious diseases, delayed or difficult birth process (more often in older sows) Unless fertility problems can be resolved easily, it is better to cull infertile sows and boars; do not let sows or boars get too old

20 Any Questions?

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