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 CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear.

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Presentation on theme: " CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear."— Presentation transcript:


2  CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.  CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

3  Name some of the infections that viruses can cause in the digestive system.  Name some of the infections that bacteria can cause in the digestive system.  Name some of the infections that parasites can cause in the digestive system.  Name some of the infections viruses can cause in the reproductive system.  What are predisposing factors that cause ear infections.  What are some of the infections that bacteria can cause in the ears and eyes of animals.


5  Infectious diseases impact several different systems within the body which include:  The digestive system  The respiratory system  The reproductive system  The integumentary system

6  An inflammation of the stomach and intestines is known as gastroenteritis.  Gastroenteritis may be caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites.  Symptoms include; vomiting, diarrhea, excessive salivation, straining and abdominal pain.  Red bleeding is from the upper GI while dark blood would be from the lower GI.  GI caused by viral pathogens is highly contagious. The most common forms are canine parvovirus and swine transmissible gastroenteritis.

7  Spore forming bacteria in the intestine increase in numbers as a result of over feeding or diet change.  Bots which are the parasitic larvae of the bot fly may be found in the stomach of horses, large numbers will lead to colic.

8  GI diseases caused by parasites may not be as evident as those caused by a virus or bacteria.  Intestinal worms may live from a month to one year. Severe cases may lead to anemia, diarrhea and emaciation. Milder cases may show as a poor performing animal. ( wt. gain, growth)  Nematodes (roundworms) are common in the gastrointestinal tract of animals.  Trichostrongyles (hairworms) are found in the stomach and intestines of ruminants.  Strongyles (bloodworms) infect the large intestines of horses.  Hookworms infect the small intestines of dogs and cats  Large roundworms infect the small intestines of pigs, dogs, cats, horses, and poultry  Whipworms are found in the large intestines of dogs and pigs.


10  Animals are infected with GI parasites when they swallow larvae and eggs while feeding.  To confirm the diagnosis of GI infection a fecal flotation test should be performed for confirmation if eggs are found.  Some of the worms may suck blood which can cause damage to the arteries, liver and lungs.

11  There are other intestinal diseases that are caused by protozoa.  Coccidiosis is common in dogs, cats, poultry and young ruminants.  Trichomoniasis is also found in dogs.  Both of these diseases caused severe diarrhea that may have blood and mucus present.  Death may occur as a result of severe dehydration and anemia.

12  Liver flukes are worms that cause inflammation and scarring of the liver.  A liver disease known as hepatitis if found in young cattle while older animals suffer from cirrhosis of the liver.  Symptoms are similar to other GI parasite infections, especially a malnourished appearance.

13  Inflammation of the sinuses is commonly referred to as sinusitis.  An inflammation of the nasal passages is known as Rhinitis.  Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the eyelids which may accompany either sinusitis or Rhinitis.  Strangles in horses is basically a combination of both disorders.

14  An inflammation of the tonsils is known as Tonsillitis.  Tonsillitis in dogs is quite common but rare in cats.  Tonsillitis is the result of a bacterial infection, symptoms may include coughing, retching, gagging and mucus discharge.

15  Pneumonitis (pneumonia) is an inflammation of the air passages and lung tissue, with symptoms ranging from a deep cough to difficulty in breathing.  Pneumonia may be caused by viral and bacterial sources which will lead to congestion, hemorrhage, mucus, and edema.  The other common viral respiratory diseases include:  Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cattle  Equine rhinopneumoitis, Equine influenza  Swine Influenza  Canine distemper  Feline viral rhinotracheitis, feline calicivirus  Fowl infectious bronchitis, fowl infectious laryngotracheitis  Avian Influenza


17  Worm parasites may also be the cause of pneumonia in some animals.  Several species of lungworms may infect horses, cattle, sheep and goats.  Coughing is the common symptom.

18  Bacterial, viral, and protozoal infections of the uterus are known as metritis.  Bacterial infection usually occurs after birth indicated by discharge of pus, it may have a very foul odor.  Other uterine disorders that may occur could be premature birth, abortion, and retained placenta.  Bacterial diseases causing abortions include; vibriosis, brucellosis, and, leptospirosis.  It may be necessary to perform lab tests on blood, fetal, placental tissues or fetal discharge to determine the cause.


20  Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands or udder tissue that may occur during lactation.  Bacterial infection may be the result of material passing through the nipple, a wound or through the blood stream.  Affected mammary glands are generally swollen, warm to the touch and painful to the animal.  Infected milk will be discolored and thickened.

21  An inflammation of the skin is known as Dermatitis which is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection. ( could be caused by viruses, parasites, and fungi)  Common symptoms include itching, hair loss and lesions.  If dermatitis is caused by pus forming bacteria it is known as pyoderma.  Pyoderma is usually associated with skin allergies or mange.

22  A pathogenic fungus is the cause of ringworm which is highly contagious by direct contact. Ringworm affects all domestic livestock and man.  Children are very susceptible to ringworm.

23  Warts are fibrous tumors of the skin affecting animals and humans.  Wards are caused by a virus which is generally transported by a arthropod.

24  Poxvirus in the skin can causes a variety of diseases for domestic livestock.  Animals acquire the virus from biting arthropods.  Bumps, blisters and bumps are common symptoms.  The diseases are named after the affected animals, fowlpox, swinepox, and cowpox

25  Ticks may be divided into two groups – soft ticks and hard ticks.  Hard ticks will attach directly to the animal and feed for several days. Spread anaplasmosis and Lyme disease.  Soft ticks usually affect fowl and are intermittent feeders.

26  Dogs and cats are commonly affected with fleas which may infest the animal with tapeworms.  Not only are fleas annoying to the animal but may cause anemia.

27  Lice infestations are most common during the cooler months of the year.  Lice infestations area common in cattle, swine and poultry.  Biting and sucking lice will cause large areas of hair loss.  Lice are most common in poultry, cattle and swine.

28  A mange infestation like lice occurs mostly in the cooler months of the year.  Mange life on the skin or in the ear canal of animals.  Mange affects few animal other than dogs and cattle.

29  Bacterial infections may cause;  Myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle  Endocarditis – inflammation of the heart lining  Pericarditis – an inflammation of the heart sack

30  Bites from mosquitos infect dos with a nematode that matures in a dogs heart causing heartworms.  The worms/disease when large numbers of worms inhibit blood flow.  An infected dog will cough, be weak, have rapid breathing, and appear to be weak.

31  Arthritis is an inflammation of a bone joint, poly arthritis is an inflammation of multiple joints.

32  An inflammation of the brain covering is known as Meningitis.  Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain tissue.  The two disorders may occur at the same time.

33  The sensory organs most commonly affected by disease include the ears and eyes.  Keratoconjunctivitis is a the inflammation of the surface of the eyeball and the eyelid.  The inflammation of the eyeball is keratitis which is evident when the cornea appears to be cloudy. The eyelid may be crusty from drainage.  Pinkeye which is common in cattle, goats and man would be an example of this disorder.

34  A bacterial ear infection is known as Otitis which is characterized by itching and drainage.  Ear infections are most common in dogs and cats but rare in larger animals.


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