Presentation on theme: "Objectives Synthesize the process of developing England’s Constitutional Monarchy from an Absolute Monarchy Compare the reign of Elizabeth Tudor and the."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Synthesize the process of developing England’s Constitutional Monarchy from an Absolute Monarchy Compare the reign of Elizabeth Tudor and the Divine Right Stuart monarchs –James I, Charles I, James II Analyze the political impact of England’s Civil War –the rise of Oliver Cromwell, the Restoration & Charles II, and the Glorious Revolution
English Constitutional Monarchy
Background Absolute to Constitutional Monarchy ( )
Magna Carta a King John I forced to accept it. A list of demands made by the nobility. a limited the power of the king: Established basic legal rights. The king must ask for consent to tax. Accused must have jury trial.
Model Parliament, 1295 a King Edward I Created a parliament Of military leaders & nobility to ask their consent to new taxes a Established the principle “power of the purse.” a A radical new idea for any monarch to ask for anything!
The Elizabethan “Bargain” a Parliament: Would have the power to tax. aThe Monarch: Had the royal power on foreign policy.
QUESTIONS What limited the power of King John? What were three powers that were limited for the King? What is, “power of the purse”? Elizabeth’s bargain claimed that who had power over foreign policy and who had power to tax?
The Early Stuart Kings ( )
The Stuart Monarchy
James Stuart King James VI of Scotland Becomes James I of England Fights with Parliament –Power –money –Puritans James I speech to the House of Commons: I am surprised that my ancestors should ever be permitted such an institution to come into existence. I am a stranger, and found it here when I arrived, so that I am obliged to put up with what I cannot get rid of!
James I: Problems a Believed in Divine Right of Kings. Parliament used to Tudors sharing power w/ Parliament Argue over $ a Defended the Anglican church Many landowners became Puritans. Puritans formed the House of Commons in Parliament NOT WISE to alienate them!
Charles I & Parliament a Son of James I a Constantly at war with Spain and France. Always need $, but how to get it?? Usually Parliament would give Charles $ a Sometimes, Parliament would deny funds. Charles dissolved Parliament finds funds in other ways. Forced “loans,” selling titles, putting soldiers in homes etc.
The Petition of Rights, 1628 a In return for money to fund his wars, Charles I agreed: No imprisonment without cause. No taxation without Parliament’s consent. No putting soldiers in private homes. No martial law during peacetime. a Charles signed it
After Petition is signed a Charles ignores it Dissolves Parliament again (for 20 yrs) a Needs $ for a rebellion in Scotland calls Parliament again pass new laws- limit king’s power a Charles tries to arrest members Unsuccessful Heads north to form army Leads to ……
QUESTIONS King James I is originally from and his name there was? What did James I do that wasn’t very WISE and why wasn’t it? What does Charles I do when Parliament doesn’t give him funds? What did Charles I have to agree to and what does it state?
TO DO Read and answer the questions on the worksheet titled: “English Bill of Rights” STUDY for TEST on THURSDAY!!!!!!!
Bell Work * you have 12 min to complete* Get a book and read Chapter 21 Section 5 Only fill in the notes for: –Charles II –James II –William & Mary On the bottom of your sheet make sure you define/identify the terms. –if you didn’t finish last time. You may work with 1 person on this portion.
The Civil War ( )
Civil War Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliament (Roundheads) a Aristocracy Loyal to king a Large landowners a Church officials (Anglican) †Townspeople Support parliament Oliver Cromwell †Merchants †Puritans
Playmobil Version: Eng. Civil War Cavaliers Roundheads
Oliver Cromwell †Officer of the Roundheads army New Model Army. defeated royal forces now controlled the government. †Cromwell purges the House of Commons anyone who isn’t anti-monarchy Beheaded Charles I Created a constitution
Cromwell: Protector or King? †Cromwell tears up the ineffective Constitution. †Dismisses Parliament rules with the military. Declares martial law. Military dictator. †Religious tolerance for all except for Catholics. Crushes a rebellion in Scotland. Crushes a rebellion among the Catholics of Ireland kills 40% of all Irish!
Cromwell- the end?? †England longs for an end to martial law! Harsh rule Puritan so: No theatre, music, etc †Cromwell dies in 1658 son Richard, takes over, weak and lasts for only two years. England wants their king back!!!!!!!
Questions During the English Civil War; who fought each other and what were the names given to each group? Who was the leader of the Roundheads? What were the 3 things Cromwell did once he controlled the government? What type of leader was Cromwell? In terms of religion, Cromwell believed in what, and except for who? Eng. wants what back towards the end of Cromwell’s rule?
The Restoration ( ) Parliament could no more exist without the Crown than the Crown without Parliament. This was the most important lesson of the English Civil War!
King Charles II a England brings Charles II back Had charm, poise, & political skills [unlike his father!]. Reopened the theaters pubs closed during the Restoration. a Restored the Church of England Favored religious toleration. Had secret Catholic sympathies.
King Charles II a Realized that he could not repeat the mistakes his father had made a 1679 Habeas Corpus Act Any unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus compelling the govt. to explain why he had lost his liberty.
King James II a Charles II picks his brother: James II Becomes Catholic –Appoints Catholics to power Wants absolute control Lacks ability to compromise Dissolves Parliament Has a son Fear the “Catholic Heir” a Provoked the revolution that Charles II avoided!
The Glorious Revolution 1688
The “Glorious” Revolution: 1688 a Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James II’s daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange. He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause. Agreed to the Bill of Rights a Also called “bloodless” James gave up
WHIGS & TORIES Whigs' believed: –constitutional monarchism –opposition to absolute rule Tories supported: –exiled Stuart royal family's claims for the throne
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] a settled major issues between King & Parliament. a Created a Prime Minister Watch out for the people a It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights 1689 a Main provisions: 1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws. 2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice. 3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent. 4. Freedom of speech in Parliament. 5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. 6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. 7. The monarch must be a Protestant. 8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. 9. Censorship of the press was dropped. 10. Religious toleration.
The Seesaw of King & Parliament:
Questions What did Charles II realize? Because of that, what did he enact? Who did Charles II name as his successor? Was this successor good or bad? Why and what started b/c of him? Who did the Whigs & Tories offer the throne to? What did the new Eng. rulers have to agree to? List some of the rights listed in the Eng. Bill of Rights. –Does the US Bill of Rights have any of the same ideas in it?