2Chapter 6.1 Vocabulary Atom Compound Electron Element Nucleus Neutron Proton
3Chapter 6 Notes Atoms, Elements & Compounds Chemical Reactions Water & SolutionsThe Building Blocks of Life
4Chapter 6 Section 1 NotesAtoms, Elements & Compounds
5What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.All organisms in Biology are made up of matter.Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
6Atoms, Elements & Compounds Hierarchy of Chemistry:Atoms Matter OrganismsThe Structure of AtomsElectrons constantly move around an atom’s nucleus in energy levels.The basic structure of an atom is the result of the attraction between protons and electrons.Atoms contain an equal number of protons and electrons, so the overall charge of an atom is zero.
7Basic Structure of Atoms ELECTRONe-PROTONNEUTRONNUCLEUSe-e-P+N0e-
8Electrons are negatively charged particles that are located outside the nucleus. Protons are positively charged particlesNeutrons are particles that have no chargeThe nucleus is the center of the atom consisting of protons and neutrons
9Atoms, Elements & Compounds There are over 100 known elements, 92 which occur naturally.Each element has:Atomic massUnique nameUnique symbolAll elements make up the periodic table.An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means.
10Periodic Table Horizontal rows Periods Vertical columns Groups Categorized by similar chemical & physical properties.
11Atoms, Elements & Compounds Pure substances formed when 2 or more different elements combine.Two rules about compounds:1. Combine in a fixed ration2. Chemically/physically different than what they combine with.Cannot tear or crush compounds back into their previous element unless the compound undergoes a chemical reaction.
12CheckpointWhat compound forms when combining H+ (hydrogen) and O2 (oxygen)?H2O, waterWhat compound forms when combining Na (Sodium) and Cl- (chlorine)?NaCl, sodium chloride, table saltWhat compound forms when combining C (carbon) and 4 H+ (hydrogen) molecules?CH4, methane
13Page 155 Question 2After the textbook questions are done, write your summary. 3-5 sentences in length.
16Chemical ReactionsChemical Reactions are processes by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are re-organized into different substances.This occurs by way of chemical reactions.Examples– photosynthesis, cellular respirationStructure of chemical reactions:Reactants ProductsA + B AB
17Balancing Chemical Reactions Due to the fact that matter cannot be created nor destroyed:The number of atoms each element on the reactant side must equal the number of atoms of the same element on the product side.The number of atoms of each element in a molecule is found on the subscript # to the right of each element.O2
18Checkpoint Balance the following equation: C6H12O6 + __ O2 __ CO2 + __ H2ORules: count how many molecules you have each side of the equation.C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2OReactantsProductsC- 6H-12O-8C-H-O-
19Chemical Reactions Some chemical reactions require activation energy. This is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
20EnzymesEnzymes are catalysts, which are substances that lowers the activation energy needed to start a reaction.Enzymes speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed.Substrates and enzymes bind together allowing the reaction to take place.W/out an enzymeActivation EnergyW/an enzyme
21Chapter 6.2 Assessment ?’s PUT WITH YOUR NOTES!!! On page 160 answer questions 1-4. Please write out the question.NOW make sure you have 4 ?’s on the left side excluding your checkpoint ?’s and assessment ?’s.FINALLY you can write your summary, it must be 5 sentences in length.
23Chapter 6.3 Vocabulary Hydrogen Bond Solution Acid Base pH WORD DEFINITIONPICTURE—COLOREDChapter 6.3 VocabularyHydrogen BondSolutionAcidBasepH
24MixturesA mixture is a combination of 2 or more substances that retain their individual characteristics & properties.Solute (solid substance)Solute + Solvent SolutionSolvent (liquid substance)
25Types of Mixtures Forms 1 uniform solution. Homogeneous(Solutions)Heterogeneous(Suspensions)Forms 1 uniform solution.Forms a colloid— doesn’t settle together.
26Checkpoint Give an example of a homogeneous solution. Salt Water Give an example of a heterogeneous solution.Chocolate chip cookie, salad with all the fixings, blood etc.Kool-Aid is made by mixing the contents from the package, sugar and water. Identify the solutes and the solvent.Solutes: Kool-Aid mix and sugarSolvent: Water
27Acids & Bases Acids release H+ ions when dissolved in H2O Bases release OH- ions when dissolved in H2OMeasure of the concentration of H+ in a solution is called pH.
28Chapter 6 Section 4 NotesThe Building Blocks of Life
31Atoms! The Structure of Atoms Electrons constantly move around an atom’s nucleus in energy levels.Atoms have several layers of electrons called “shells”. Different numbers of electrons can fit into each shell.
321st level is smallest, can only hold 2 e- 2nd level can hold 8 e-3rd level can hold 18 e-Atoms fill up the first levels with electrons and then go into next
34Can I get your (atomic) number baby? Elements are arranged on the periodic table by their atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus.
35CheckpointIn pairs, tell me the atomic number of hydrogen, helium, and carbon. Look to your left for clues. Write your answer of your whiteboards.How many electrons do hydrogen, helium, and carbon have?Write your answer on your whiteboards.
39Carbon Carbon is a component of almost all biological molecules. For this reason, life on earth is often considered carbon-based!The half-filled outer shell allows for the formation of straight chains, branches and rings. The different shapes make it able to form lots of different things.
41MacromoleculesLarge molecules formed by joining smaller organic molecules (monomers) into chains.Polymers are large molecules made up of repeating identical segments of monomers
42Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinCarbohydrateNucleic AcidLipid
43Carbohydrate Compounds made of C, H, and O, usually seen as (CH2O)n . N indicates the number of compounds that are connected.The building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides (simple sugars) that contain 3 to 7 compounds and:Polysaccharides that contain 8 or more compounds.Examples include glycogen which can be broken down into glucose. (Found in liver & skeletal muscles)Other examples include: Chitin which plays a structural role in crustaceans.
44Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinCarbohydrateFILL INNucleic AcidLipid
45Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinCarbohydrateMonosacc-haridesStore energy/ used for structural support in cellsGlucoseNucleic AcidLipid
46LipidsLipids are biological molecules made mostly of C and H; fats, oils, and waxes are all lipidsLipids are composed of fatty acids, glycerol and other components. Most are insoluble (do not dissolve in water – think of oil and water).Organisms needs lipids in order to function properly.PhospholipidsResponsible for the function and structure of the cell membrane.Hydrophobic—do not dissolve in water.SteroidsCholesterol and hormones
48Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinCarbohydrateNucleic AcidLipidFILL IN
49Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinCarbohydrateNucleic AcidLipidFatty acidsStore energyProvide barriersFats, Oils and Waxes
50ProteinsA protein is a compound made of small carbon compounds called amino acids.Amino acids are small compounds that are made of C, N, O, H and sometimes S.Amino AcidsThere are 22 different types of amino acids.3-D protein structureThe # of amino acids in a chain and the order in which the amino acids are joined define the protein’s primary structure.Connected by peptide bonds.Protein FunctionMake up 15% of your total body mass and are involved in nearly every function of your body.Examples: muscles, skin and hair and enzymes.
51Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinFILL INCarbohydrateNucleic AcidLipid
52Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinAmino acidsTransport substancesSpeed up reactionsStructural supportEnzymesCarbohydrateNucleic AcidLipid
53Nucleic AcidsNucleic Acids are complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information.Nucleotides are small repeating units that make up nucleic acids.Nucleotides are composed of C, N, O, P and H.There are 6 major nucleotides all contain a phosphate, nitrogenous base and a ribose sugar.Two major types of nucleic acids that store genetic information:DNA—deoxyribonucleic acidRNA—ribonucleic acidAnother major nucleotide is ATP, which is a storehouse of chemical energy that can be used by cells to carry out chemical reactions.
54Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro-moleculeBuilding BlockFunctionExampleProteinCarbohydrateNucleic AcidFILL INLipid
56Practice!In pairs, answer #’s on page I will call on pairs to give their answers.
57Macro- molecule Building Block Function Example Protein Nucleic Acid Amino AcidsTransport substancesSpeed up reactionsStructural supportEnzymesCarbohydrateMonosacc-haridesStore energy/ used for structural support in cellsGlucoseNucleic AcidNucleotideStore & communicate genetic informationDNARNALipidFatty acidsStore energyProvide barriersFats, Oils and Waxes