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Mr. Wagner Biology Chemistry in Biology. Chapter 6.1 Vocabulary 1. Atom 2. Compound 3. Electron 4. Element 5. Nucleus 6. Neutron 7. Proton.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Wagner Biology Chemistry in Biology. Chapter 6.1 Vocabulary 1. Atom 2. Compound 3. Electron 4. Element 5. Nucleus 6. Neutron 7. Proton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Wagner Biology Chemistry in Biology

2 Chapter 6.1 Vocabulary 1. Atom 2. Compound 3. Electron 4. Element 5. Nucleus 6. Neutron 7. Proton

3 Chapter 6 Notes Atoms, Elements & Compounds Chemical Reactions Water & Solutions The Building Blocks of Life

4 Chapter 6 Section 1 Notes Atoms, Elements & Compounds

5 What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms in Biology are made up of matter. Atoms are the building blocks of matter.

6 Atoms, Elements & Compounds Hierarchy of Chemistry: Atoms Matter Organisms The Structure of Atoms Electrons constantly move around an atoms nucleus in energy levels. The basic structure of an atom is the result of the attraction between protons and electrons. Atoms contain an equal number of protons and electrons, so the overall charge of an atom is zero.

7 Basic Structure of Atoms e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- NUCLEUS P+P+ N0N0 ELECTRON PROTON NEUTRON

8 Electrons are negatively charged particles that are located outside the nucleus. Protons are positively charged particles Neutrons are particles that have no charge The nucleus is the center of the atom consisting of protons and neutrons

9 Atoms, Elements & Compounds There are over 100 known elements, 92 which occur naturally. Each element has: Atomic mass Unique name Unique symbol All elements make up the periodic table. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means.

10 Periodic Table Horizontal rows Periods Vertical columns Groups Categorized by similar chemical & physical properties.

11 Atoms, Elements & Compounds Compounds Pure substances formed when 2 or more different elements combine. Two rules about compounds: 1. Combine in a fixed ration 2. Chemically/physically different than what they combine with. Cannot tear or crush compounds back into their previous element unless the compound undergoes a chemical reaction.

12 Checkpoint What compound forms when combining H + (hydrogen) and O 2 (oxygen)? H 2 O, water What compound forms when combining Na (Sodium) and Cl - (chlorine)? NaCl, sodium chloride, table salt What compound forms when combining C (carbon) and 4 H + (hydrogen) molecules? CH 4, methane

13 Page 155 Question 2 After the textbook questions are done, write your summary. 3-5 sentences in length.

14 Chapter 6 Section 2 Notes Chemical Reactions

15 Chapter 6.2 Vocabulary 1. Catalyst 2. Chemical Reaction 3. Enzyme

16 Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions are processes by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are re-organized into different substances. This occurs by way of chemical reactions. Examples– photosynthesis, cellular respiration Structure of chemical reactions: Reactants Products A + B AB

17 Balancing Chemical Reactions Due to the fact that matter cannot be created nor destroyed: The number of atoms each element on the reactant side must equal the number of atoms of the same element on the product side. The number of atoms of each element in a molecule is found on the subscript # to the right of each element. O 2

18 Checkpoint Balance the following equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + __ O 2 __ CO 2 + __ H 2 O Rules: count how many molecules you have each side of the equation. C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O ReactantsProducts C- 6 H-12 O-8 C- H- O-

19 Chemical Reactions Some chemical reactions require activation energy. This is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.

20 Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts, which are substances that lowers the activation energy needed to start a reaction. Enzymes speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed. Substrates and enzymes bind together allowing the reaction to take place. Activation Energy W/out an enzyme W/an enzyme

21 Chapter 6.2 Assessment ?s PUT WITH YOUR NOTES!!! On page 160 answer questions 1-4. Please write out the question. NOW make sure you have 4 ?s on the left side excluding your checkpoint ?s and assessment ?s. FINALLY you can write your summary, it must be 5 sentences in length.

22 Chapter 6 Section 3 Notes Water & Solutions

23 Chapter 6.3 Vocabulary 1. Hydrogen Bond 2. Solution 3. Acid 4. Base 5. pH WORD DEFINITION PICTURECOLORED

24 Mixtures A mixture is a combination of 2 or more substances that retain their individual characteristics & properties. Solute (solid substance) Solvent (liquid substance) Solute + Solvent Solution

25 Types of Mixtures Homogeneous (Solutions) Heterogeneous (Suspensions) Forms 1 uniform solution. Forms a colloid doesnt settle together.

26 Checkpoint Give an example of a homogeneous solution. Salt Water Give an example of a heterogeneous solution. Chocolate chip cookie, salad with all the fixings, blood etc. Kool-Aid is made by mixing the contents from the package, sugar and water. Identify the solutes and the solvent. Solutes: Kool-Aid mix and sugar Solvent: Water

27 Acids & Bases Acids release H + ions when dissolved in H 2 O Bases release OH - ions when dissolved in H 2 O Measure of the concentration of H+ in a solution is called pH.

28 Chapter 6 Section 4 Notes The Building Blocks of Life

29 Chapter 6.4 Vocabulary 1. Macromolecule 2. Polymer 3. Carbohydrate 4. Lipid 5. Protein 6. Amino Acid 7. Nucleic Acid 8. Nucleotide

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31 Atoms! The Structure of Atoms Electrons constantly move around an atoms nucleus in energy levels. Atoms have several layers of electrons called shells. Different numbers of electrons can fit into each shell.

32 1 st level is smallest, can only hold 2 e- 2 nd level can hold 8 e- 3 rd level can hold 18 e- Atoms fill up the first levels with electrons and then go into next

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34 Can I get your (atomic) number baby? Elements are arranged on the periodic table by their atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus.

35 Checkpoint In pairs, tell me the atomic number of hydrogen, helium, and carbon. Look to your left for clues. Write your answer of your whiteboards. How many electrons do hydrogen, helium, and carbon have? Write your answer on your whiteboards.

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39 Carbon Carbon is a component of almost all biological molecules. For this reason, life on earth is often considered carbon-based! The half-filled outer shell allows for the formation of straight chains, branches and rings. The different shapes make it able to form lots of different things.

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41 Macromolecules Large molecules formed by joining smaller organic molecules (monomers) into chains. Polymers are large molecules made up of repeating identical segments of monomers

42 Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid Lipid

43 Carbohydrate Compounds made of C, H, and O, usually seen as (CH 2 O) n. N indicates the number of compounds that are connected. The building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides (simple sugars) that contain 3 to 7 compounds and: Polysaccharides that contain 8 or more compounds. Examples include glycogen which can be broken down into glucose. (Found in liver & skeletal muscles) Other examples include: Chitin which plays a structural role in crustaceans.

44 Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Carbohydrate FILL IN Nucleic Acid Lipid

45 Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein CarbohydrateMonosacc- harides Store energy/ used for structural support in cells Glucose Nucleic Acid Lipid

46 Lipids Lipids are biological molecules made mostly of C and H; fats, oils, and waxes are all lipids Lipids are composed of fatty acids, glycerol and other components. Most are insoluble (do not dissolve in water – think of oil and water). Organisms needs lipids in order to function properly. Phospholipids Responsible for the function and structure of the cell membrane. Hydrophobicdo not dissolve in water. Steroids Cholesterol and hormones

47 Saturated & Unsaturated

48 Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid LipidFILL IN

49 Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid Lipid Fatty acidsStore energy Provide barriers Fats, Oils and Waxes

50 Proteins A protein is a compound made of small carbon compounds called amino acids. Amino acids are small compounds that are made of C, N, O, H and sometimes S. Amino Acids There are 22 different types of amino acids. 3-D protein structure The # of amino acids in a chain and the order in which the amino acids are joined define the proteins primary structure. Connected by peptide bonds. Protein Function Make up 15% of your total body mass and are involved in nearly every function of your body. Examples: muscles, skin and hair and enzymes.

51 Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample ProteinFILL IN Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid Lipid

52 Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Amino acidsTransport substances Speed up reactions Structural support Enzymes Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid Lipid

53 Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids are complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information. Nucleotides are small repeating units that make up nucleic acids. Nucleotides are composed of C, N, O, P and H. There are 6 major nucleotides all contain a phosphate, nitrogenous base and a ribose sugar. Two major types of nucleic acids that store genetic information: DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid RNAribonucleic acid Another major nucleotide is ATP, which is a storehouse of chemical energy that can be used by cells to carry out chemical reactions.

54 Checkpoint (COPY TO WB!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid FILL IN Lipid

55 Pair Checkpoint (COPY TO NOTES!) Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid NucleotideStore & communicate genetic information DNA RNA Lipid

56 Practice! In pairs, answer #s on page 177. I will call on pairs to give their answers.

57 Macro- molecule Building Block FunctionExample Protein Amino AcidsTransport substances Speed up reactions Structural support Enzymes CarbohydrateMonosacc- harides Store energy/ used for structural support in cells Glucose Nucleic Acid NucleotideStore & communicate genetic information DNA RNA Lipid Fatty acidsStore energy Provide barriers Fats, Oils and Waxes


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