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Nr. 1 POWER PRODUCT LINE DEWETRON - Power Product Line PQ System installation and evaluation of Wind Power Plants in Europe Seoul 2009 09 Dr. Werner Schoeffer.

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Presentation on theme: "Nr. 1 POWER PRODUCT LINE DEWETRON - Power Product Line PQ System installation and evaluation of Wind Power Plants in Europe Seoul 2009 09 Dr. Werner Schoeffer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nr. 1 POWER PRODUCT LINE DEWETRON - Power Product Line PQ System installation and evaluation of Wind Power Plants in Europe Seoul Dr. Werner Schoeffer DEWETRON GmbH Parkring 4, A-8074 Grambach Phone:

2 Nr. 2 POWER PRODUCT LINE Quality characteristics of Power V (220 V, 110V or different) 2. AC - sinewave (60) Hz 5. Availability 4. 3 phases

3 Nr. 3 POWER PRODUCT LINE Reasons for PQM Electrical energy is an open market and the quality of the product has to be defined TQM (total quality monitoring) must also be done for this product. The user has the right to get a product which fits to the standard (EN50160) The supplier has to guarantee the quality. In judicial proceedings the prosecutor has to present the facts.

4 Nr. 4 POWER PRODUCT LINE Situation Today Energy has been monitored since electrical energy has been distributed. The flow of active power and reactive power is known very well in most of the substations. Faults have been recorded by the use of paper recorders or in protection relays. Power quality has been measured in case of troubles.

5 Nr. 5 POWER PRODUCT LINE Renewables are coming Renewable Energy are a lot of small power plants feeding into the grid. Sometimes they can control the voltage level. Voltage variations and Harmonics are coming up more and more because of electronic loads and decentralized power generation.

6 Nr. 6 POWER PRODUCT LINE Standards and Regulations EN50160Voltage levels in public power grids IEC harmonics measurement IEC flicker measurement IEC PQ measurement methods IEC Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines

7 Nr. 7 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN EC-directive 85/374 – standardization of the product liabilty laws Electricity became a product Quality characteristics for the product Electricity (voltage) have been used EN Customers can be sure, that the quality of their voltage supply is in any point of the supply grid, under normal conditions, at least conform to the EN 50160

8 Nr. 8 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN in details

9 Nr. 9 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (1) 10sec-avg value, 99,5% of a year: 50Hz, +/- 1% (stand alone: +/- of a week) 100 % of a year: +4%/-6% (stand alone : +/- frequency

10 Nr. 10 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (2) phase voltage (line to earth, lower voltage grid) 230 V~ (attention: until 2006: 220 V) transmission grid: 1 kV to 35 kV line to line voltage (must be defined)

11 Nr. 11 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (3) MV+LV: 95% of the 10min-avg values have to be in the range of +/-10% U slow voltage variations LV: 100% of the 10min-avg values have to be in the range of +10/-15% U

12 Nr. 12 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (4) Flicker: P LT =1 in 95% of a week fast voltage fluctuations and flicker Voltage fluctuations: Low voltage: <5% 10ms (up tp 10%) Medium voltage: <4% 10ms (up to 6%)

13 Nr. 13 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (5) dips: <60%, per year Voltage dips

14 Nr. 14 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (6) short: < 1sec, per year long: < 3 min (30% of counted short) interruptions

15 Nr. 15 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (7) Very long interruptions: > 3 min, per year voltage drop out Proclaimed (in case of service): always

16 Nr. 16 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (8) net frequent over voltages : LV: < 1,5 kV short circuit MV: <1,7 – 2*Uc

17 Nr. 17 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (9) Transients Lower voltage: <6kV

18 Nr. 18 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (10) unsymmetry in 95% of a week

19 Nr. 19 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (11) of a week THD < 8% harmonics in detail H3: 5% H5: 6% H7: 5% H9: 1,5% H11: 3,5% H13: 5% H15: 0,5% H17: 2% H19: 1,5% H21: 0,5% H23: 1,5% H25: 1,5% H2: 2% H4: 1% Others (up to 25): 0,5%

20 Nr. 20 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (12) interharmonics not defined But: flicker

21 Nr. 21 POWER PRODUCT LINE EN (13) frequency depending limit curve Telegram voltages

22 Nr. 22 POWER PRODUCT LINE When and where is EN valid ? Connection point public grid – customer Low voltage (400V) and medium voltage (1kV to 35 kV) systems Under normal operation conditions Not after faults ! New: application guide !

23 Nr. 23 POWER PRODUCT LINE IEC Classes Class A: This class is used where precise measurement is necessary, such as contractual applications that may require resolving disputes, verifying compliance with standards, etc. Any measurements of a parameter carried out by two different instruments complying with the requirements of class A, when measuring the same signals, will produce matching results within the specified uncertainty for that parameter. Class S: NEW under construction. This class is used for statistical applications such as surveys or power quality assessment, possibly with a limited subset of parameters. Although it uses equivalent intervals of measurement as used in class A, the class S processing requirements are much lower. Class B: This class may be used for quality surveys, trouble shooting applications and other applications when low uncertainty is not required.

24 Nr. 24 POWER PRODUCT LINE Additional Standards Voltage levels in customers grids (e.g. IEC ) Emission levels of equipment (e.g. IEC x) Regulations for the connection of customers to public grids (e.g. TOR D2 in D A CH CZ) Special standards for renewable energy (e.g windmills) Environment for IT –ITIC, former CBEMA curve Voltage interruptions –Unipede statistics, – SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI, etc.)

25 Nr. 25 POWER PRODUCT LINE Europe All EC members have a regulatory body. They should get the PQ data from the grid companies. They will then summarice this data for average statistics. In Future grid tariffs will depend on the supply quality.

26 Nr. 26 POWER PRODUCT LINE What is measured where ? 20kV (or 30kV)110kV380kV230 V (400 V) Voltage variations Flicker Harmonics Frequency Interharmonics Higher Harmonics (2-9 kHz) Fault Recording Voltage variations Flicker Harmonics Frequency Interharmonics Fault Recording Harmonics Frequency Fault Recording Frequency

27 Nr. 27 POWER PRODUCT LINE Data to be collected (1) EN –U rms –frequency –U harmonics (up to 25th) –U interharmonics –THD (total harmonic distortion up to 40) –unbalance –flicker (long term) –voltage Dips –over-voltage –signal voltage

28 Nr. 28 POWER PRODUCT LINE Data to be collected (2) Additional for Harmonics –Harmonics up to 50 (for windmills up to 100) –Flexible grouping methods of the bins (today: +/- 1 bin, old: only the base line) –New in : Frequency groups between 2 to 9 kHz (200 Hz groups)

29 Nr. 29 POWER PRODUCT LINE Data to be collected (3) Flicker requirements: –Pst in 10 min –Plt in 2 h –For both: sliding windows and adjustable intervals for service and adjustment work –New: flicker emission (current flicker) –New: flicker direction

30 Nr. 30 POWER PRODUCT LINE Data to be collected (4) Power measurement: –P, Q, S, PF –Fundamental values P_h1, Q_h1, S_h1, Phi_h1 –Harmonics values –Distortion power D Symmetrical components: –Unbalance of the fundamental –Positive, negative and zero system of U and I

31 Nr. 31 POWER PRODUCT LINE Reporting the Data (1) Diagrams: Min/Max/Average of the data row Comparing the data with limits –(absolute and relative) Quantile values for 95%, 99%, 100%, any other value to be open for coming standards (e.g. EN50160) Different limits for different quantile values Histogram curves in different styles Statistical values like MOD, VAR, STDDEV, etc. Energy lines (Energy consumption as time line) Sorted data lines (e.g. of power for energy management) Individual mathematical analysis of data lines

32 Nr. 32 POWER PRODUCT LINE Reporting the Data (2) FFT: Standard FFT FFT with limits Limits user definable FFT with selectable number of bins –(e.g. old IEC ) Frequency bands (e.g. FFT of voltage (phase and line), current FFT of power, reactive power incl. sign

33 Nr. 33 POWER PRODUCT LINE Reporting the Data (3) Faults: List of transients Transient curves Evaluated transients = events (duration and height) DISDIP statistics CBEMA / ITIC curve Combined diagrams and statistics Individual mathematical analysis of transients FFT of transients

34 Nr. 34 POWER PRODUCT LINE Reporting the Data (4) What else ? Report Generator Topologic View Support

35 Nr. 35 POWER PRODUCT LINE Renewable Energy Renewable Energy: Wind power plants Photopholtaic … Own PQ rules and needs

36 Nr. 36 POWER PRODUCT LINE Wind Power Plants What makes wind mill measurements special ? 1. Parameters of EN50160: –connecting wind farms to the public grid 2. Parameters of : –type testing of wind mills

37 Nr. 37 POWER PRODUCT LINE Windpark EN50160 Example: –EN50160: wind farm monitoring at BEWAG (Austria)

38 Nr. 38 POWER PRODUCT LINE Example Bewag They need to monitor the Quality in their whole grid (Regulation rules) Different needs for different voltage levels and windparks –110 kV: Faultrecording, voltage recording… –20 kV: PQ according EN50160, power, … –Wind: 20 kHz bandwidth, parameters of IEC , Flicker, Flickeremission…

39 Nr. 39 POWER PRODUCT LINE Wind: IEC Testing (comissioning) of PQ parameters of a wind mill and wind farms –Harmonics –Frequency Hz –Power pins for different windspeed –Flicker emission

40 Nr. 40 POWER PRODUCT LINE Tests of Parameters at different Wind speed –From cut in wind speed to 15m/s in steps of 1 –Flickeremission –Flickercoefficient Parameters at different Power pins –10%,20%,…80%,90%,100% P Nenn –Max of P, Q, PF (200ms, 1min, 10min) –Max Harmonics of currents –Max Interharmonics of currents –Max HF of currents (higher harmonics Voltage Variations –Behaviour of wind mill

41 Nr. 41 POWER PRODUCT LINE Wind: Online evaluation

42 Nr. 42 POWER PRODUCT LINE Grid Connection Wind farms in Austria and Europe Typical grid connection

43 Nr. 43 POWER PRODUCT LINE Grid Connection of Wind farms At the beginning: Single wind mills in MV grid Wind power was growing Troubles with voltage varations and flicker came up Solution Combining wind mills to wind parks Bringing power more to higher short circuit power

44 Nr. 44 POWER PRODUCT LINE Austria and Windfarms Most of the wind power is here (~1 GW)

45 Nr. 45 POWER PRODUCT LINE Grid Connection of Wind farms 20kV (30kV)110kV380kV typical 2 MW typical 20 MW other Loads typical > 80 MW Load balancing

46 Nr. 46 POWER PRODUCT LINE Grid Connection of Wind farms Typical size of Wind mill: 2 MW Typical Wind farm: 10 mills = 20 MW Eastern Austria: several wind farms Single Wind mills: directly connected to MV distribution cable (typ. 20 kV) Wind farms: directly on MV transformer More Wind farms: have an own 20 kV/110kV transformer Load balance with hydro power pump stations on 380 kV level

47 Nr. 47 POWER PRODUCT LINE Load Balancing Hydro Power Pump Stations for Load Balancing in the mountains 380kV

48 Nr. 48 POWER PRODUCT LINE DEWETRON - Power Product Line

49 Nr. 49 POWER PRODUCT LINE Conclusions PQ monitoring is a must in the future. It is still to define how common reports and procedures shall look alike. The requirements differ from case to case and different instruments can deliver different data. Combined instruments which can give PQ data, fault data, energy flow, etc. seem to be the future. Central servers that provide the data to different departments will be used. Completely automated data exchange between the grid company, the regulatory body and the customer is from the technical point of view possible but requires more defined data formats and reporting types. Renewables require special measurements and monitoring. The producers of these instruments are well prepared for this challenge.

50 Nr. 50 POWER PRODUCT LINE DEWETRON - Power Product Line Thank you for your attention Seoul Dr. Werner Schoeffer DEWETRON GmbH Parkring 4, A-8074 Grambach Phone:

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