2contents Introduction What is power factor Importance of power factor Disadvantages of low power factorCalculation of power factorPower factor correction methodTypes of power factor correctionPower factor correction unitConclusion
3IntroductionAny industrial process using electric motors (to drive pumps, fans, conveyors, refrigeration plant etc.) introduces inefficiencies into the electricity supply network by drawing additional currents, called "inductive reactive currents".This can be regulated by regulating an important component of power supply called “power factor”
4AC power flow main three components: 1) Active power (P), measured in watts (W); 2) Apparent power (S), measured in volt-amperes (VA); 3) Reactive power (Q), measured in reactive volt-amperes (VAr).
5ACTIVE POWER It is also called as true power The actual amount of power being used, or dissipated, in a circuit is called active powerIt is also called as true powerTrue power is a function of a circuit's dissipative elements, usually resistances (R).It is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P, as always)
6REACTIVE POWERIt is equal to the peak value of that power component that travel back and forth on the line, resulting in zero average ,and thus does no useful work.Reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero powerYet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power.This “phantom power” is called reactive powerIt is measured in a unit called Volt-Amps-Reactive (VAR)
7APPARENT POWERThe combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent powerIt is the product of a circuit's voltage and current, without reference to phase angle.Apparent power is measured in the unit of Volt-Amps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S.
11What is power factorIt is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power, and is a number between 0 and 1.Power factor = Active power/Apparent powerPower factor is the percentage of electricity that is being used to do useful work
12EXPLANATIONIn a purely resistive AC circuit, voltage and current waveforms are in step (or in phase), changing polarity at the same instant in each cycle.Where reactive loads are present, such as with capacitors or inductors, voltage and current waveforms are not in step (or not in phase), thus result in a time difference between the current and voltage waveforms.Thus have energy storage in the loads which returns to the source and is not available to do work at the load.A circuit with a low power factor or with reactive loads will have thus higher currents to transfer at a given quantity of power than a circuit with a high power factor.
13PURELY RESISTIVE SYSTEM Instantaneous and average power calculated from AC voltage and current with a unity power factor (φ=0, cosφ=1)
14PURELY INDUCTIVE SYSTEM Instantaneous and average power calculated from AC voltage and current with a zero power factor (φ=90, cosφ=0)
15SYSTEM WITH BOTH RESISTIVE AND INDUCTIVE LOAD Instantaneous and average power calculated from AC voltage and current with a lagging power factor (φ=45, cosφ=0.71)
16Importance of power factor IN INDUSTRIES A power factor of one or "unity power factor" is the goal of any electric utility company since if the power factor is less than one, they have to supply more current to the user for a given amount of power use.In so doing, they incur more line losses. They also must have larger capacity equipment in place than would be otherwise necessary.
17DISADVANTAGES OF LOW POWER FACTOR Direct costs of low power factorThis increases generation and transmission costsLoss in distribution capacityLarger InvestmentTransformersLarge size conductors
20Power factor correction method Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique of counteracting the undesirable effects of electric loads that create a power factor that is less than 1Power factor correction may be applied either by an electrical power transmission utility to improve the stability and efficiency of the transmission networkOr correction may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce the costs charged to them by their electricity supplier
21Types of power factor correction method Passive PFCActive PFC
22PASSIVE PFCThis is a simple way of correcting the nonlinearity of a load by using capacitor banksPower factor correction is achieved by the addition of capacitors in parallel with the connected motor circuitsDepending on the load and power factor of the network, the power factor controller will switch the necessary blocks of capacitors in stepsThe resulting capacitive current is leading current and is used to cancel the lagging inductive current flowing from the supply.It is not as effective as active PFC Switching the capacitors into or out of the circuit causes harmonics
23CURRENT VECTORS WITHOUT CORRECTION LEAKAGE CURRENTCURRENT VECTORS WITHOUT CORRECTION
25TYPES OF PASSIVE PFC STATIC METHOD Capacitors connected at each starter and controlled by each starterBULK METHODIn this method capacitors are connected at a distribution board and controlled independently from the individual starters
28Active PFCAn Active Power Factor Corrector (active PFC) is a power electronic system that controls the amount of power drawn by a loadIn most applications, the active PFC controls the input current of the load by addition of a boost converter that forces a sinusoidal input so that the current waveform is proportional to the mains voltage waveform (a sinewave).This requires additional semiconductor switches and control electronics, but permits cheaper and smaller passive componentsActive PFC is the most effective and can produce a PFC of 0.99 (99%).That feature is particularly welcome in power supplies for laptops and cell phones.
29Power factor correction unit An automatic power factor correction unit is equipment used to improve power factor, in industrial networks.By increasing the power factor to near 1, current is reduced in the power system and usually utility charges for electrical power are reduced.It usually consists of a number of capacitors that are switched by means of contactors.
30BENEFITS OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION Reduce Utility Power Bills.Reduction in load current.Increase in voltage level across the load.Improve System Operating Characteristics. (Reduce Line Losses)Reduces the size of conductor required.
31CONCLUSIONImprovement of power factor is necessary in both consumer and supplier point of view. In some industries penalty is charged due to maintenance of low power factor. In some industries where power consumed by the load is low, high ratings of equipments are required. SVC Technologies and Synchronous Generator are used for the improvement of power factor.