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WASH and Increased Food Security Ron Clemmer FSN Meeting November 15, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "WASH and Increased Food Security Ron Clemmer FSN Meeting November 15, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 WASH and Increased Food Security Ron Clemmer FSN Meeting November 15, 2012

2 Increased Food Security and WASH Additional Productive Time Soil Fertility Improvement Better Water Management

3 Additional Productive Time One example – Dango, Angola Women walked 2 hours per day to get water from the river Reduced to 0.5 hour per day with installation of borehole, saving 10.5 hours or more per week Extra time results in 20% more time in agriculture activities

4 Soil Fertility Human excrement – feces and urine –waste or resource Feces –organic material, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) –pathogens and intestinal worms Urine –N (urea), P, K –typically no pathogens

5 Thanks!

6 Arborloo

7 Urine diverted with special pedestals or squat plates Examples from South Africa and Kenya from Peter Morgan

8 Urine diluted with water and applied to plants can enhance growth significantly Leafy green vegetables like spinach are particularly responsive Courtesy of Peter Morgan

9 Most of this maize cob mass derived from nutrients supplied by urine diluted in water (3:1) Courtesy of Peter Morgan

10 Better Water Management Multiple Water Use Services (MUS) Communities turn single-use designed water systems into de facto multiple use systems > may cause damage, as unplanned OR Communities construct multi-purpose water infrastructure > for multiple livelihood and domestic use benefits and broad basis for cost-recovery and Communities use and re-use multiple sources for multiple uses > for more holistic, efficient and sustainable water resource management Source of some MUS info from Barbara Van Koppen, MUS, Stockholm World Water Week, 2012

11 Wider livelihood mandates: -Health from safe drinking water and reduced time for getting water, plus enhanced food and income Multi-purpose technology: -Higher service levels ‘climbing the water ladder’ for more water to homesteads -Often add-ons, like cattle troughs, community gardens Domestic+ MUS

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13 Irrigation+ MUS Crop-based food and income, plus non- irrigation uses Multi-purpose technology: -water to fields, plus add-ons, like cattle ramps, washing places, and domestic water supplies

14 MUS Cost-Benefit Analysis –More uses, so more livelihood benefits and resilience –Can be highly cost-effective investments with low incremental costs for livelihood improvements in some cases –No damage from unplanned uses, so more sustainable

15 Midpoint estimates of income benefits by service level are: Highest level multiple uses: $71/capita Intermediate level multiple uses: $61/capita Basic level multiple uses: $25/capita Example: Per Capita Income Benefits by Incremental Service Levels for Domestic Source: Renwick et al Winrock International, IRC and IWMI Basic level MUS Intermediate level MUS Highest level MUS Basic Domestic Home gardens Livestock Small scale enterprises Total Midpoint $11$27$17$25 Range $1-22$4-50$4-30$1-50 Home gardens Livestock Small scale enterprises Total Midpoint $23$67$17$61 Range $2-43$14-120$4-30$2-120 Home gardens Livestock Small scale enterprises Total Midpoint $64$87$19$71 Range $4-50$36-138$4-35$4-138 Average incremental income benefit: $25 Average incremental income benefit: $36 Average incremental income benefit: $10 The largest incremental gains in income are achieved at the intermediate service level.

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17 –Evaluation of Domestic+ MUS opportunities in Ghana showed high potential for significant population coverage –“However, there would be a relatively small impact per person in terms of improved livelihoods.” –“Total investment costs for increasing service levels is USD/capita.” Source: Multiple Use Water Services Scoping Study Synthesis,” International Water Management Institute, Rockefeller Foundation, IRC, March MUS does not always provide a good return on investment

18 Feasibility / Sustainability Study Technical Feasibility Environmental Sustainability Social Capacity Financial Feasibility and Sustainability

19 –Can require higher level of feasibility analysis –Different government ministries responsible for different water uses –Different expertise and perspectives of local implementers –Different water quality needs Challenges for MUS

20 Increased Food Security and WASH Additional Productive Time –possibly much more time Soil Fertility Improvement –Ecological Sanitation and soil nutrients available in every village Better Water Management –Multiple Water Use Services

21 WASH and Food Security - Resource Conservation Linkages Ron Clemmer FSN Meeting November 15, 2012

22 Degraded Lands - Deforestation Can decrease soil moisture, groundwater and surface water resources Can cause increase in flooding and soil erosion from runoff and wind

23 Alternative for reforestation Farmer managed natural regeneration (FMNR) Underground forest of millions of sprouting tree trunks with 20 or more sprouts

24 Impacts of FMNR in Niger Reforestation – 5 million hectares reforested averaging 40 trees per hectacre Increase in water resources Increased incomes - $200/year for each family Increased food security – Additional 500,000 tons of grain per year, enough for 2.5 million people

25 Water and soil conservation in the field Stone bund Trench bund

26 Gully Treatment with gabion check dam

27 Where 70% of the livelihood is from livestock, saving water and productive grazing land is crucial

28 Check dams – reducing flooding and providing irrigation water

29 Linkages with Resource Conservation Resource conservation to support resiliency and disaster risk reduction programming not only conserves water and soil for farming purposes and decreases flood, but also increases water resources for domestic water use

30 Thanks! Ron Clemmer World Vision


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