Presentation on theme: "How farmers are linking food security, adaptation and mitigation in East Africa Panel 2: Opportunities and innovations to bring climate-smart agriculture."— Presentation transcript:
How farmers are linking food security, adaptation and mitigation in East Africa Panel 2: Opportunities and innovations to bring climate-smart agriculture to scale Moses M. Tenywa Brussels Policy Briefing no. 29 Climate change, agriculture and food security: proven approaches and new investments, 27 th September 2012 Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo (MUARIK)
Presentation outline African agriculture Changes that have occured Food security & land degradation Climate risks & impacts Adaptation & mitigation measures Risk assessment & resilience framework Strategies & institutional innovations for strengthening resilience of farming systems
GHGs emissions in agriculture & carbon sequestration potential in selected countries in Africa (Source: Brown S et al., 2012) GHG emissionsMillion t CO2e/yr Total in agriculture sector with base year set at 2006 129 Livestock108.36 Non-livestock20.64 Carbon sequestration (interventions)t CO2e/ha/yr Change in practices (soil only)0.4 to 5 Changes that including soil and vegetation ( agro forests & native ecosystems) 6 to 22 Across four (4) EA countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) and five (5) W. African countries (Burkina Faso,Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) Land use changes-deforestation & conversion to agriculture account for 17% global C0 2 emissions (World Bank, 2009).
What has changed in the cattle corridor of Uganda? Demographic shifts – increasing population Environmental degradation - fewer trees, degraded soils Increase in pests and diseases Lower yields Population pressure – same land + more people Shifts in weather patterns- increase in extreme events Shift from barter to cash trading system Institutional change – collapse of cooperatives Declining strength of cultural ties and tradition More social places & interacting
Increasing climate related risks Consequences of drought Poor yields, low livestock productivity Famine Coping mechanisms Feeding children with milk Alternative foods (e.g mud fish and water weed (especially in the case of the 1940s drought) Diversifying livelihoods – other cash crops (orange) & livestock Drip irrigation, Crops with short growing season, Drought resistant crops Sharing water with animals
Declining productivity & extensification 55% of the land in Africa is unsuitable for any kind of agriculture except nomadic grazing. 20-30% of SSAs cropland is now severely degraded (Oldeman et al. 1991) Average yield of maize is only 1 ton/ha and most of EA countries will be unable to feed themselves by the year 2025 under business as usual.
StrategiesTechnologies and Practices Cropland management Nutrient management, Tillage/residue management, Water management (e.g. small scale Irrigation), Improved varieties, Sustainable use of wetlands, Agroforestry Sustainable management of Grazing land Managing grazing Intensity, Pasture improvement (Reseeding, Species Introduction) and management, Water harvesting and management, Fire Management,Controlling invasive weeds Livestock management Improved feeds and feeding Practices, Animal Breeding Animal health care and management, Efficient marketing of livestock and livestock products Restoration of Degraded Lands Erosion Control, Integrated watershed management (IWM), Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Agricultural manure and waste management Improved Storage and Handling, Anaerobic digestion (e.g. Biogas), More efficient use of manure as nutrient Source Technologies and Practices for enhancing adaptation and mitigation co-benefits in the agricultural sector
Technologies for adaptation to climate change used by smallholder farmers Major management practices include; water harvesting, crop rotation with legumes and intercropping
Linkages between food security, adaptation & mitigation
14 Diversification: diverse enterprises on the same piece of land
Agroforestry & Afforestation enhancing removals-mitigation Agroforestry holds great C-sequestration potential (e.g. mature cacao agroforestry systems under humid conditions store 565 tons of CO 2 eq per hectare (Rice & Greenberg, 2000).
Conservation and conservation agriculture Conservation or reduced tillage agriculture increases SOM, moisture capacity and water use efficiency
Integrating agroforestry in the farming system has mitigation co-benefits through carbon sequestration as well as modification of microclimatic conditions to reduce soil moisture stress. Examples include citrus, coffee and Jatropha in banana plantation and as live fence; Also storage helps avoid emissions Agroforestry practices that enhance removals of GHGs
Yield (t/ha) Water and fertilizer management-what is the C- foot print?
Strategies for strengthening resilience of farmers Mobilization & sensitization Participatory planning Strengthening Natural resource user Self Help Groups-linking to markets & credit Training Collective Implementation Participatory M&E
ICT innovations for strengthening adaptation actions