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Irrigation Water Conveyance After completing this session the student will be aware of the features of irrigation water conveyance systems and how they.

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Presentation on theme: "Irrigation Water Conveyance After completing this session the student will be aware of the features of irrigation water conveyance systems and how they."— Presentation transcript:

1 Irrigation Water Conveyance After completing this session the student will be aware of the features of irrigation water conveyance systems and how they may affect on farm water management.

2 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Conveyance System Requirements Deliver water to every part of the irrigated area at a rate and elevation that permits proper operation of the application system; Be compatible with the application equipment; Convey the water as economically, efficiently and safely as possible; and Be accessible for Operation and Maintenance.

3 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA On Farm Conveyance System

4 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Conveyance System Schematic

5 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Conveyance Efficiency In the Western States, an estimated one-third to one-half of the water diverted for irrigation is lost between the source and point of use NRCS NEH Part 623, Chapter 2, Irrigation Water Requirements

6 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Conveyance Losses Operational spills Seepage Consumptive Use by vegetation & evaporation Leakage around structures

7 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Typical Conveyance Efficiencies Source to Farm 65% - 95% Farm to Field 70% - 90% Source to Field 30% - 65%

8 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Distribution Efficiency Study Element3yr Rounded Average Volume Diverted, (ac-ft)355,000 (59 acre-inches) Canal Waste (-), (ac-ft)25,0007% Lateral Waste (-), (ac-ft)60,00017% System Losses (-), (ac-ft)50,00014% System Gains (+), (ac-ft)35,00010% Volume Delivered, (ac-ft)255,000 (43 acre-inches) Distribution Efficiency 72% Farm Waste150,000 (25 acre-inches) Application Efficiency 41% Overall Farm Efficiency 30% , Riverton Unit - Wind River Project, USBOR, (72,000 acres)

9 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Conveyance System Components Open Channels Pipelines Conveyance Structures –Diversions & Pumps –Headgates, Wasteways, Division Boxes, Turnouts … –Water Measurement Devices –Check & Grade Control Structures –Flumes, Siphons & Culverts

10 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Diversion Dam or Pumps They should: Provide the Required Flow Rate Provide the Required Elevation or Pressure Perform Properly over the entire Irrigation Season Accommodate Fish or Other Resource Concerns Perform without Excessive Operation & Maintenance And if they dont: Plan repairs, replacement; or Develop an IWM strategy to deal with the constraint.

11 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Diversion Dam

12 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Diversion Dam

13 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Diversion Dam

14 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Headgates, Turnouts & Other Ditch Structures They should: Provide the required flow rate & elevation or pressure Screen excessive or undesirable debris Accommodate expected sedimentation Provide opportunity for water measurement Perform without excessive Operation & Maintenance And if they dont: Plan repairs, replacement; or Develop IWM strategy to deal with the constraint.

15 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Headgates & Turnouts

16 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Headgates & Turnouts

17 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Headgates, Turnouts & Other Structures

18 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Headgates, Turnouts & Other Structures

19 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Headgates, Turnouts & Other Ditch Structures

20 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Other Ditch Structures

21 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Other Ditch Structures

22 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Other Ditch Structures

23 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Other Ditch Structures

24 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches They should: Have capacity for the required flow rate Screen excessive or undesirable debris Accommodate expected sedimentation Limit Losses to an acceptable amount Perform without excessive Operation & Maintenance And if they dont: Plan repairs, replacement; or Develop IWM strategy to deal with the constraint.

25 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches Features: Used for main canal, laterals & on farm transport Open channel, gravity flow Water surface controls the delivery elevation Natural earth or lined channels

26 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches

27 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches

28 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches Benefits: Accommodate small to large flows May accommodate large debris Many alternatives for water measurement Low to moderate construction cost (unlined) Intercept runoff & groundwater May provide some storage capacity May support some riparian functions

29 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches Disadvantages: Must have adequate slope May require checks & grade control structures Prone to operation waste (up to 50% pass through) Seepage, vegetative & evaporation losses Seepage may damage adjacent land & property May occupy a large area & require crossing structures

30 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches Disadvantages: cont. May provide source of weed seed Susceptible to erosion, sedimentation, flood damage, & rodents Higher maintenance than pipelines Poor maintenance reduces capacity Can be a safety concern

31 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Canals & Ditches

32 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Typical Unlined Canal/Ditch Losses Seepage Loss 0.2 – 6 ft 3 /ft 2 /day Loss to Ditch-side Vegetation 0.5% - 1% per mile Loss to Ditch Evaporation ~ < 0.5% per mile

33 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Ditch Canal Lining Alternatives

34 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Ditch Canal Lining Alternatives Traditional Canal Linings ($1 to $10 / sq ft) – Compacted Clay – Concrete Lining – Buried Geomembrane – Exposed Geomembranes –Concrete Covered Geomembranes –Spray-applied Membranes Reduce seepage loss by 90 – 95% Service life 20 to 50 years.

35 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Ditch Canal Lining Alternatives PAM Canal Treatment Cost ~ $.005 to $0.02 / sq ft May reduce seepage loss by 30% – 50% May require annual treatment Doesnt work in all situations

36 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines They should: Deliver the required flow at the required elevation/pressure Provide opportunity for water measurement Perform without excessive operation & maintenance And if they dont: Plan needed maintenance, replacement; or Develop IWM strategy to deal with the constraints

37 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines Features: Gravity or Pressure Flow Available head / pressure controls delivery elevation Above ground or underground installations PVC, PE, Concrete, Steel & Aluminum materials

38 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines Benefits: Less dependent on topography than ditches Greater flow control = less operational waste Very small water losses (0.01 – 0.15 ft 3 /ft 2 ) Little to no loss of land use Eliminate weed seed production Less susceptible to environmental damage Typically fewer maintenance & safety concerns

39 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines

40 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines

41 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines

42 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines

43 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines

44 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines Disadvantages: Moderate to high cost compared to unlined ditch Not feasible for large flows Must screen out debris and prevent sedimentation Fewer and more expensive alternatives for water measurement Provides no riparian function values

45 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Pipelines

46 NRCS Irrigation Water Management Training Fort Collins, CO; July 11-15, 2005 JEA Summary No irrigation system is worth a hill of beans if the water is not available to the crop at the time that the plants require it Questions?


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