Presentation on theme: "Economic Impacts of Climate Change Emily Massawa Tom Downing Paul Watkiss."— Presentation transcript:
Economic Impacts of Climate Change Emily Massawa Tom Downing Paul Watkiss
Objectives 1.Assess potential impacts and economic costs of climate change: what is at-risk? 2.Scope the cost and benefits of adapting to these effects over time 3.For East Africa, look at the potential and benefits of low carbon growth Economics of Climate Change
Framing the costs of adaptation Evidence base is weak: climate change impacts are only beginning to be significant beyond current vulnerability and adaptation projects are still at a pilot stage. Several lines of evidence are required to build a robust picture. Case studies of existing projects provide an initial basis. Sectoral investment plans need incremental adjustment for climate resilience. Global assessment including integrated models can be interpreted for Africa and specific countries. However, a large range of estimates is plausible and there is low confidence in estimates at this stage.
Climate variability already has significant economic costs throughout Africa. In East Africa, periodic floods and droughts cause major macro- economic costs and reduce economic growth. In Kenya, periodic drought and flood years have economic costs equivalent to more than 5 % of GDP, and long-term impacts on growth (World Bank, 2006). Climate change will lead to future economic costs on top of these existing effects. Existing climate variability and economics
The Economic Costs of Climate Change in Africa will be significant Coastlines and sea level rise. up to 20 million people / year in 2100 flooded Costs of several $billion/year by 2030 Up to $50 billion/year by 2100 (AdaptCost) Energy demand. Rising temperatures and demand for cooling rise of 30% by Water resources People with high water stress, million by the 2020s and million by the 2050s Increasing extremes Costs of flood and drought years already 5 – 8% of GDP. Extreme events could intensify Loss of ecosystem services Effects on forests, corals, wildlife parks, and on tourism and services Heath burden Rising incidence of health burdens (malaria, other vector borne), heat extremes Agriculture yield reductions up to 50% by 2020 and net crop revenues up to 90% by 2100 Source: Watkiss et al SEI WeAdapt Google Earth Platform/ DFID Economics of Climate Change in East Africa / UNEP AdaptCost / EC ClimateCost
Assessments of economic costs of climate change highly uncertain Aggregated models give indications of effects High potential costs for most of Africa, higher than for other world regions Costs of impacts in Africa Annual Impact from climate change as equivalent % of GDP in Africa in Source: AdaptCost / East Africa study based on FUND national model.
Findings are Climate change will lead to potentially large economic costs in Africa Models indicate could be equivalent to annual loss in GDP of % by 2030 These costs are much higher in Africa than other world regions, because of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity Annual economic cost in Africa likely to rise in future years Economic impacts will be unevenly distributed across countries, between sectors and between individuals, communities and regions Economic Costs for Africa
Adaptation can reduce the economic costs of climate change, but cannot not remove them completely. Number of studies have estimated the costs of adaptation and investment needed for Africa. African Development Bank (2006) estimated $2 to 7 billion / year needed in the short-term in Africa More recent studies indicate higher estimates. Adaptation
9 Adaptation to do what? Current climate impacts Additional climate change impacts Immediate priorities, institutional capacity Climate resilience in sectoral investment Additional investment to accelerate development to ensure adequate climate resilience Natural resource management, poverty alleviation, disaster risk reduction, major infrastructure 9
Adaptation financing needs for Africa $ Billion per year ( ) Draft estimates from the AdaptCost project
11 Directly related to additional climate change: Immediate (current) adaptation needs are several billion/year. Costs rise for adaptation to future climate change including additional protection of sectoral investment to $10 to $30 billion by Additional investment is related to development: Current capacity for adaptation, especially in disaster risk reduction, poverty alleviation and natural resource management Social protection and compensation for residual impacts These additional investments to enhance future resilience are difficult to cost but could be a further $10 to 30 billion (possibly more) per year by 2030 AdaptCost range of estimates is therefore Lower benchmark of $25 billion per year for immediate needs (by 2012) Upper benchmark of $60 billion per year by 2030 including accelerated development finance Estimates of adaptation in Africa
There are existing international financing mechanisms for low carbon projects, but CDM has been difficult to access for Africa Discussion about reforming mechanisms in negotiations New mechanisms likely to emerge include programmatic CDM, and possibly National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) Potential for forestry and REDD Need to ensure they will benefit Africa Link low carbon growth and development Low Carbon Growth
Economic and rapid population growth will lead to large increase in energy, transportation and food requirements and GHGs. In Rwanda and Kenya electricity is not the major source of future national emissions – transport & agriculture are most important. Low carbon development pathway could provide significant economic opportunities, strongly in Africas self-interest. Failure to do so will lock-in future economic growth to high emissions. Reduce opportunities for future low carbon finance. Low carbon growth has co-benefits reducing energy imports, enhancing energy security, improving air quality and health, reducing pressure on natural resources. Low Carbon Growth
East Africa Examples
Economic costs of climate change likely to be high in Africa. Large need for adaptation finance. Entitlement to substantial funds must be assured but effective mechanisms and institutions must be developed. Variety of low carbon funding mechanisms under discussion, but need to enhance benefits and application for Africa. Common negotiations positions are important – for low carbon and adaptation. Need to agree on early next steps, including effort over next years. Concluding issues