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1850 - 1914. 2 nd French Republic & Empire 2 nd Empire 1852-70 under Napoleon III Participated in the Crimean War with Britain against Russia 1853- 56.

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Presentation on theme: "1850 - 1914. 2 nd French Republic & Empire 2 nd Empire 1852-70 under Napoleon III Participated in the Crimean War with Britain against Russia 1853- 56."— Presentation transcript:

1 1850 - 1914

2 2 nd French Republic & Empire 2 nd Empire 1852-70 under Napoleon III Participated in the Crimean War with Britain against Russia 1853- 56 which shattered the Concert of Europe Made many changes that benefited socialists and industrialists. Beautified Paris and made it the city it is today. Was very popular until his downfall as his rule went from authoritarian [1852-60] to liberal [1860-70] Supported the disastrous Mexican expedition of Maximilian of Austria 1861-67. Napoleon III

3 Napoleon III & Foreign Policy As Emperor he needed a wife and heir. Chose a woman he loved rather than an arranged marriage. Eugenie de Monitjo of Spain. Crimean War 1854-56. Ended the Concert of Europe when he joined Britain in fighting Russia. Unification of Italy Asia Policy Mission to Japan Second Opium War 1860 occupation of China French Indochina Mexico 1866 Maximilian Hapsburg

4 Nationalism: Italy Nationalism: feelings of devotion and loyalty to one’s country or ethnic group Italy was dominated by Austria and France Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia PM Camillo Cavour sided with France & Britain in the Crimean War in exchange for French support for Italian Unification Unification of Italy 1850-1870

5 Unification of Italy Assassination Attempt on Napoleon III Attempt by Italian Nationalist helped encourage Napoleon’s participation War With Austria Cavour instigated an incident, France intervened and defeated Austria Piedmont got Lombardy and Central Italy in exchange for giving France Nice and Savoy

6 Italian Unification Garibaldi’s Campaign Giuseppe Garibaldi led 1000 nationalists on a campaign to capture Sicily and Naples Cavour sent troops into the South meeting up with Garibaldi Garibaldi was a Republican but gave in to Cavour March 1861 Victor Emmanuel II became king of Italy Venice & Rome Venice went to Italy in 1866 when Austria lost to Prussia Rome and Papal State went to Italy in 1870 when France lost to Prussia Desired territories included the Tyrol and Dalmatian Coast 150 years 1861 - 2011

7 Nationalism: Germany Unification of Germany 1866-71 Prussian King Wilhem I Chancellor Otto von Bismarck Architect of unification Greater Germany A unified Germany including the Austrian Empire Lesser Germany A unified Germany without Austria

8 German Unification: Bismarck’s Blood & Iron Austro-Prussian War of 1866 Prussia defeated Austria in 6 weeks; eliminated Austria from interfering in German affairs United Northern Germany with Prussia Franco-Prussian War of 1870 Ems Telegram doctored by Bismarck to insult France Prussia defeated France and resulted in German unification Germany is unified in Jan 1871 Germany takes Alsace-Lorraine from France France vows revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine The Unification of Germany 1862- 1871

9 France Under the 3rd Republic Paris Commune Many Parisians felt betrayed by their own gov’t and formed The Commune to rule Paris separate from France The new conservative gov’t sent an army to crush the commune Politics France was a republic by default ruled by pro-monarchist generals and parliamentarians who couldn’t agree on a successor The Dreyfus Affair [1894-96] threatened to pull the republic apart. Dreyfus was a Jewish officer accused to giving secrets to the Germans. Eventually evidence against Dreyfus was proven to be forged but Conservatives, Catholics, and the Army blamed Dreyfus with the political left backing him. Showed the strength of Anti- Semitism in French politics. Split France into Right vs Left camps

10 Britain Moves Toward Democracy Reform Bill of 1867 Under the leadership of Tory Benjamin Disraeli the electorate was increased by 1 million. Large swaths of working class males could now vote. Education Act of 1870 Under liberal William Gladstone government assumed responsibility for elementary education Civil service exams replaced patronage Home Rule for Ireland Attempts at giving the Irish self government failed time and time again finally passing in 1914 but WWI prevented implementation

11 European Society 2 nd Industrial Revolution focused on steel, coal and railroads. Germany surpassed Britain in industrial production by 1900 Eifel Tower became a symbol of Paris in 1889 along with Sacre Coeur {Church of Sacred Heart} Migration & Urbanization People migrated to cities requiring improvements in sanitation [sewers], police & fire protection Housing reform made great strides Improvement in Hospitals Budapest had Continental Europe’s first subway by the late 1800s

12 European Society Social Distinctions Middle Class became a dominant class in late 1800s Upper middle class were factory owners, nouveu riche Petit bourgeoisie were lower middle class, white collar workers [secretaries, clerks] and professions Conspicuous Consumption Women and Legal Barriers Most legal systems treated women as minors in terms of owning property and divorce. Education was severely limited for women Employment limited to low skill, low pay Movements to gain women the right to vote [suffragettes] increased especially in Britain under Emmeline Pankhurst

13 European Society Socialist Movements & their differences France unionist here tended to avoid politics despite voting socialist French socialists had an anarchist influence Germany Socialists here were greatly influenced by Marxian ideology By 1912, SPD [Social Democratic Party] was largest in the Reichstag When WWI arrived, the chose Nationalism over Internationalism Britain Unionist here often voted with Liberals. Fabian Socialists dominated in Britain who believed in reforming without confrontation. Not until after WWI would a British Labour Party emerge as a political force Russia Influenced by anarchist elements as well. Socialists split into 2 factions Menshaviks [minority in Russian] although a majority of socialists and Bolsheviks [majority in Russian] although a minority of socialists

14 Hapsburg Austria Franz Josef & Elizabeth Elizabeth was his first cousin from Bavaria Elizabeth surrounded herself with Hungarian advisors, preferred to live in Hungary and speak Hungarian. She became a champion for Hungarian independence The Hapsburg Curse Eldest daughter died at Age 2 Son Rudolf heir to throne supposedly committed suicide at age 30 in 1889 Elisabeth assassinated in 1898 Franz Ferdinand: Fran Josef’s nephew and heir after Rudolf’s death is assassinated in 1914

15 Ethnic Tension in Austria Conflict among German, Magyar and Slavic groups threatened to pull the Empire apart. Austria’s defeat to Prussia in 1866 brought the Hungarian question to the forefront once again.

16 Dual Monarchy of 1867 Compromise [Ausgleich] of 1867 Eventually Franz Josef agreed to division of the Empire in Austrian and Hungarian parts. Each had its own government and parliaments but shared a common monarchy, army & foreign policy. Franz Josef and Elizabeth were crowned King & Queen of Hungary in Budapest.

17 Bismarck’s Germany 1871-1890 Kulturkampf 1871-1878 Felt the Catholic Church had too much power in Germany but were only 1/3 of the population Catholics priests and Bishops were arrested or forced into exile Laws proved very unpopular and encourages support for the Catholic Centre Party

18 Bismarck’s Germany 1871-1890 Anti-socialist Laws In 1878 fear of socialism led Bismarck to persecute them Forbid socialist meetings or newspapers Failed to prevent growth of the movement Welfare State Bismarck created Europe’s first old age pension, accident insurance, medical care and unemployment insurance in order to undercut socialist support

19 Bismarck’s Foreign Policy 1871- 1890 Realpolitik What mattered most was what benefited Germany. Doing what was practical rather than ideological System of alliances to isolate France Three Emperor’s League {Russia, Austria, Germany} Reinsurance Treaty with Russia 1887 Opposed the acquisition of colonies, too burdensome Pre-emptive wars were stupid arguing it was like committing suicide because one is afraid of death

20 Imperialism & Germany 1890- 1900 Imperial Conflict Wilhelm II, nephew of Queen Victoria. Wilhelm wanted an empire to match Germany’s economic and military power Did not like Bismarck’s advice and fired him in 1890 Ordered a massive expansion of the German navy which led to increased conflict with Great Britain.

21 Nationalism: The Balkans Europe’s Powder Keg Ottoman Domination & Collapse Albania & Bosnian conversions to Islam Crimean War treaty required Ottomans treat Christians & Muslims equally “The Sick Man of Europe Bulgarian Uprising 1876 Atrocities by Bashibazouk [Ottoman irregulars] led to international outrage Russia Defender of Slavs and Eastern Orthodoxy 1877 Russo-Ottoman War Major Russian victory Liberated Rumania and Bulgaria Russian success frightened the European powers Bashibazouk Atrocities

22 Imperialism in Africa Reasons for Imperialism Economic: resources & markets Strategic: bases for refueling Prestige White Man’s Burden” Race for Africa Only 2 independent nations by 1900 [Ethiopia and Liberia] Stanley Livingston Englishman who explored the interior of Africa Joseph Conrad’s novel “Heart of Darkness”

23 Imperialism in Asia French Indochina Controlled Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Emergence of Japan US Commodore Perry’s visit in 1853 opened Japan’s eyes to modern technology Meiji Restoration 1867 Restored the monarchy and ended feudalism in Japan Began a period of rapid modernization Sino-Japanese War 1895 Seized Korea and Formosa [Taiwan] from China Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 1 st time an Asia nation defeated a European

24 Imperialism in China Spheres of Influence All European powers carved out a piece of China Each had extra-territorial status Boxer Rebellion 1899-1901 Chinese martial arts students rebel against European domination and Christian missionaries European powers send in troops to put down the rebellion. Last Emperor 1908-12 Emperor Puyi was 3 years old when he became Emperor. Revolution and civil followed his overthrow in 1912

25 Nationalism: The Balkans Russia and Pan-Slavism Russia agreed to a peace treaty with the Ottomans in Jan 1878 but proceeded to move toward Constantinople. Britain sent a fleet to intimidate the Russians from entering the city Congress of Berlin 1878 Bismarck called for a conference to end the conflict Romania & Serbia gain independence Bulgaria is autonomous Bosnia-Herzegovina administered by Austria- Hungary Balkans 1878-1914

26 Balkan Tensions: Austria-Hungary Ethnic tension Serbia had designs on Austro-Hungarian lands. They coveted Bosnia- Herzegovina most. Austria annexed Bosnia- Herzegovina in 1908. Triple Monarchy? Franz-Ferdinand: heir to the throne proposed a triple monarchy and self government for slavs. Serbs saw this as a threat Europe 1877

27 The Alliance System Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia

28 Decline of the Romanovs Romanov Dynasty 1613- 1917 Alexander II [1855-81] Reformed Russia politically, esp at the local level Freed the serfs in 1861 Assassinated by the People’s Will Assassination of Alexander II

29 Decline of the Romanovs Alexander III [1881-1894] 2 nd son not properly prepared to rule until after the death of his older brother Tall 6’4” imposing figure that rules as menacing as he looked Returned to conservative policies creating more antagonisms in Russia Died early at age 49 [kidney failure]

30 Decline of the Romanovs Nicholas II [1894-1917] Unprepared to rule. Married a German, Alexandra, niece of Queen Victoria 1905 Revolution Bloody Sunday, Father Gaspon led protestors to the Tsar’s winter palace. Soldiers opened fire killing 92 Open Revolution ensued. Nicholas II granted the formation of a Duma [parliament]

31 Decline of the Romanovs The Family’s Dark Secret Alexis, the son had hemophilia B Russian doctors struggled to cure the boy when ill. Alex and Nicholas resorted to using the powers of a Siberian Monk, Gregory Rasputin Many Russians could not understand why the family kept this man as an advisor. Support for the monarchy began to deteriorate

32 The Powder Keg Explodes The Balkan Wars 1912- 1913 1 st Balkan War Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece vs the Ottoman empire 2 nd Balkan War Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire vs Bulgaria Assassination 1914 Sarajevo, Bosnia Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by Serbian terrorists and triggers WWI

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