Presentation on theme: "Nationalism a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation, national identity."— Presentation transcript:
Nationalism a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation, national identity Nationalism contributes to the formation of two new Germany and Italy and a new political order in Europe
Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Two Views of Nationalism 1. Nationalists use their common bonds to build nation-states 2. Rulers eventually use nationalism to unify their subjects Three different types of nationalist movements: unification merges culturally similar lands separation splits off culturally distinct groups state-building binds separate cultures into one
Nationalism: A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. The last half of the 1800s can be called the Age of Nationalism. Through national feeling, European leaders fought ruthlessly to create strong, unified nations. Germany and Italy unified under nationalism, the Austrians and Ottomans fought to keep their empires in tact, and Russians started to challenge the power of the Czar (Tsar).
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Breakup of the Austrian Empire Austria includes people from many ethnic groups 1866 defeat in Austro- Prussian War (Seven Weeks War) and Hungarian nationalism forces emperor to split the empire into Austria and Hungary still ruled by emperor Flag of Austria-Hungary representing two kingdoms, but ruled by one emperor. This was a concession to Hungarian nationalism.
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Russia Empire Crumbles After 370 years, Russian czars begin losing control over their empire Russification—forcing other peoples to adopt Russian culture policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnic nationalism
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Ottoman Empire Weakens Internal tensions among ethnic groups weakens the empire. Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turks.
Building a German Nation In the early 1800s, German-speaking people, Austrians, and Prussians lived in a number of small and medium- sized states. Under Napoleon’s control the people of the area united to throw the French out. With Napoleon gone the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation headed by Austria.
Building a German Nation In 1848 people again demanded German political unity under the leadership of Frederick William IV of Prussia – he rejected the notion of a throne offered by “the people”. Under a Prussian, Otto von Bismarck, the German states were united through a series of “wars of unification” against Denmark, Austria, and France. In the Franco- Prussian War Napoleon III surrendered after a mere few weeks. Bismarck is considered the architect of German unity. In January 1871, William I of Prussia took the title of Kaiser (emperor) of Germany – ushering in the Second Reich (empire) – heir to the First Reich, the Holy Roman Empire.
Nationalism: A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Under Otto von Bismarck, Germany emerged as Europe’s most powerful empire – but at a considerable cost. Where once the world saw Germany as a center for the Northern Renaissance, it was now viewed as conquerors and destroyers. Neither loved nor respected, only feared.
Bismarck Unites Germany Beginning in 1815, thirty-nine German states form the German Confederation Prussia Leads German Unification Prussia has advantages that help it to unify Germany mainly German population powerful army creation of liberal constitution
Bismarck Takes Control Junkers—conservative wealthy landowners—support Prussian Wilhelm I Junker realpolitik master Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister Realpolitik—power politics without room for idealism Bismarck defies Prussian parliament
Seven Weeks War Bismarck creates a border dispute with Austria to provoke a war Prussia seizes Austrian territory, northern Germany Eastern and western parts of Prussian kingdom are joined for the first time.
The Franco-Prussian War Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans Wilhelm is crowned Kaiser—emperor of a united Germany—at Versailles Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian dominance.
In the aftermath of unification Germany emerged as the industrial giant of the European continent; it’s shipping was second only to Britain. Germany had many advantages, its iron and coal deposits, along with a population surge (from 41 million in 1871 to 67 million in 1914) served to propel Germany forward. Bismarck, sought to keep France isolated and weak, while building strong links with Austria and Russia, as well as erase local loyalties within by attacking the Catholic Church and the Socialists. His moves backfired, forcing him to make peace with the church and woo the workers of Germany. Because of this Germany became the model of social reform for other European countries.