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6.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTSIDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTEDDESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED CONTRAST.

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Presentation on theme: "6.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTSIDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTEDDESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED CONTRAST."— Presentation transcript:

1 6.1

2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTSIDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTEDDESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED CONTRAST MAINFRAMES, MINICOMPUTERS, SUPERCOMPUTERS, PCs, WORKSTATIONSCONTRAST MAINFRAMES, MINICOMPUTERS, SUPERCOMPUTERS, PCs, WORKSTATIONS* 6.2

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORKCOMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK DESCRIBE MEDIA FOR STORING DATADESCRIBE MEDIA FOR STORING DATA COMPARE INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICESCOMPARE INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES DESCRIBE MULTIMEDIA, TRENDSDESCRIBE MULTIMEDIA, TRENDS* 6.3

4 MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM? CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGECPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE COMPUTERS & COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIESCOMPUTERS & COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES SECONDARY STORAGESECONDARY STORAGE INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICESINPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES INFO TECHNOLOGY TRENDSINFO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS* 6.4

5 INPUT D EVICES SECONDARY STORAGE PRIMARY STORAGE COMPUTER COMPONENTS CPU OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES BUSES 6.5

6 BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/NotBIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BYTE: Group of bits for one characterBYTE: Group of bits for one character –EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte) –ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errorsPARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors* HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED 6.6

7 EXAMPLES OF BYTES C: C: A: A: T: T: Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number* EBCDIC ASCII EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system) (assume even-parity system) 6.7

8 COMPUTER TIME Millisecond.001 second thousand 15min 40 sec Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days Nanosecond.001microsecond billion 31.7 years Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion 31,700 years * NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND # PER COMPARED # PER COMPARED 6.8

9 MEMORY SIZE KILOBYTE (KT): 2 10 bytes bytesKILOBYTE (KT): 2 10 bytes bytes MEGABYTE (MB): 2 10 KB... “million” bytesMEGABYTE (MB): 2 10 KB... “million” bytes GIGABYTE (GB): 2 10 MB... “billion” bytesGIGABYTE (GB): 2 10 MB... “billion” bytes TERABYTE (TB): 2 10 GB... “trillion” bytesTERABYTE (TB): 2 10 GB... “trillion” bytes* 6.9

10 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES:

11 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS:

12 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS: INTEGRATED CIRCUITS:

13 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS: INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS: PRESENT * 6.13

14 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC/LOGICUNIT ROM CLOCK 6.14

15 BUSES CPU PRIMARYSTORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE 6.15

16 TYPES OF MEMORY RAM : Random Access MemoryRAM : Random Access Memory –Dynamic: Changes thru processing –Static: Remains constant (power on) ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) –PROM: Program can be changed once –EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light –EEPROM: Electrically erasable * 6.16

17 ADDRESSES IN MEMORY Each location can hold one BYTE Each location has an ADDRESS 6.17

18 ALU & CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operationsARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer systemCONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system* 6.18

19 I-CYCLE: 1. FETCH 2. DECODE 3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER 4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER * INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE 6.19

20 E-CYCLE: 5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER 6. COMMAND ALU 7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION 8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR * INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE 6.20

21 CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS MAINFRAMEMAINFRAME MINICOMPUTERMINICOMPUTER PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) WORKSTATIONWORKSTATION SUPERCOMPUTERSUPERCOMPUTER* 6.21

22 MAINFRAME LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTERLARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONSCOMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS MASSIVE DATAMASSIVE DATA COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONSCOMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS* MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second 6.22

23 MINICOMPUTER MIDDLE-RANGEMIDDLE-RANGE 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABSUNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAMEUSED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME* 6.23

24 DESKTOP OR PORTABLEDESKTOP OR PORTABLE 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERSPERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS AFFORDABLEAFFORDABLE MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTSMANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS CAN BE NETWORKEDCAN BE NETWORKED* MICROCOMPUTER 6.24

25 WORKSTATION DESKTOP COMPUTERDESKTOP COMPUTER POWERFUL GRAPHICSPOWERFUL GRAPHICS EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIESEXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES MULTI-TASKINGMULTI-TASKING USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS)USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS)* 6.25

26 SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND HIGHLY SOPHISTICATEDHIGHLY SOPHISTICATED COMPLEX COMPUTATIONSCOMPLEX COMPUTATIONS FASTEST CPUsFASTEST CPUs LARGE SIMULATIONSLARGE SIMULATIONS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTSSTATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS EXPENSIVEEXPENSIVE* 6.26

27 SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL TASK 1 RESULT TASK 2 RESULT Program CPU Program CPU Program CPU TASK 2 CPU TASK 3 CPU TASK 1 RESULT 6.27

28 VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU WORD LENGTH: bits processed at one timeWORD LENGTH: bits processed at one time MEGAHERTZ: one million cycles per secondMEGAHERTZ: one million cycles per second DATA BUS WIDTH: bits moved between CPU & other devicesDATA BUS WIDTH: bits moved between CPU & other devices REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC): embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speedREDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC): embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed MultiMedia eXtension (MMX): enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applicationsMultiMedia eXtension (MMX): enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications* MICROPROCESSOR 6.28

29 EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS 6.29

30 NAMEUSE PCs MAC QUADRAS PENTIUM PCs PENTIUM PRO PCs PENTIUM (MMX) MULTIMEDIA PENTIUM II HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS PowerPC HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS ALPHA COMPAC & DEC WORKSTATIONS PENTIUM III MULTIMEDIA 6.30 USES OF MICROPROCESSORS

31 CENTRALIZED: PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITECENTRALIZED: PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE –ONE STANDARD –GREATER CONTROL DISTRIBUTED: PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKSDISTRIBUTED: PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS –MORE FLEXIBILITY –FASTER RESPONSE * CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED 6.31

32 NETWORKED COMPUTERSNETWORKED COMPUTERS CLIENT: user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not haveCLIENT: user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have SERVER: component (computer) having desired data, application, communicationsSERVER: component (computer) having desired data, application, communications* CLIENT / SERVER 6.32

33 CLIENT SERVER REQUESTS DATA, SERVICE USER INTERFACE APPLICATIONFUNCTIONDATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES CLIENT / SERVER 6.33

34 DOWNSIZING TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL REDUCES COSTREDUCES COST SPEEDS RESULTS TO USERSPEEDS RESULTS TO USER COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BESTCOMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST COOPERATIVE PROCESSINGCOOPERATIVE PROCESSING* 6.34

35 NETWORK COMPUTERS NETWORK COMPUTER: simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server)NETWORK COMPUTER: simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO): total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training)TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO): total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training)* 6.35

36 DISKDISK TAPETAPE OPTICAL STORAGEOPTICAL STORAGE* SECONDARY STORAGE 6.36

37 DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systemsHARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive DisksRAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PCFLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC* 6.37

38 DISK PACK STORAGE LARGE SYSTEMSLARGE SYSTEMS RELIABLE STORAGERELIABLE STORAGE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATALARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLEQUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKSTYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACESCYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITEHEADS 6.38

39 TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTORTRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 STARTOFTRACKS 6.39

40 CD-ROM: MEGABYTESCD-ROM: MEGABYTES –LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light –PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM): –CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable –CD-RW: CD - Rewritable DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of dataDIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data* OPTICAL STORAGE 6.40

41 STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILESSTANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool)SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool) RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block)RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block) GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAPGROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIMERECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME* HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3 MAGNETIC TAPE 6.41

42 ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPEENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDSUSED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS INEXPENSIVEINEXPENSIVE STORED IN SAFE LOCATIONSTORED IN SAFE LOCATION CAN BE REUSEDCAN BE REUSED* MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE 6.42

43 PERIPHERAL DEVICES POINTING DEVICESPOINTING DEVICES SOURCE DATA AUTOMATIONSOURCE DATA AUTOMATION OUTPUT DEVICESOUTPUT DEVICES* 6.43

44 POINTING DEVICES KEYBOARDKEYBOARD MOUSEMOUSE –WIRED –INFRA-RED –TRACKBALL –TOUCH PAD JOYSTICKJOYSTICK TOUCH SCREENTOUCH SCREEN* 6.44

45 SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): saves characters, formatOPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): saves characters, format BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipmentsBAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): special ink identifies bank, account, amountMAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): special ink identifies bank, account, amount* 6.45

46 SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION PEN-BASED INPUT: digitizes signaturePEN-BASED INPUT: digitizes signature DIGITAL SCANNER: translates images & characters into digital formDIGITAL SCANNER: translates images & characters into digital form VOICE INPUT DEVICES: converts spoken word into digital formVOICE INPUT DEVICES: converts spoken word into digital form SENSORS: devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)SENSORS: devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)* 6.46

47 OUTPUT DEVICES CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) PRINTERPRINTER PLOTTERPLOTTER VOICE OUTPUT DEVICEVOICE OUTPUT DEVICE MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIA* 6.47

48 DATA PROCESSING BATCH PROCESSING: transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.BATCH PROCESSING: transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. ON-LINE PROCESSING: transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.ON-LINE PROCESSING: transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.* 6.48

49 KEYBOARD INPUT BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE OLD MASTER FILE NEW MASTER FILE VALIDATE AND UPDATE ERROR REPORTS REPORTS 6.50 BATCH PROCESSING

50 ON-LINE PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS KEYBOARD PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE MASTER FILE IMMEDIATE INPUT IMMEDIATE PROCESSING IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE 6.50

51 TECHNOLOGY TRENDS INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIAINTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA VIRTUAL REALITYVIRTUAL REALITY ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEBENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB SUPERCHIPSSUPERCHIPS FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERSFIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERSMASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS SMART CARDSSMART CARDS MICROMINIATURIZATIONMICROMINIATURIZATION* 6.51

52 Connect to the INTERNET PRESS LEFT MOUSE BUTTON ON ICON TO CONNECT TO THE LAUDON & LAUDON WEB SITE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS CHAPTER 6.52

53 6.53


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