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5.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 5 5 MANAGING HARDWARE HARDWARE ASSETS ASSETS.

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Presentation on theme: "5.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 5 5 MANAGING HARDWARE HARDWARE ASSETS ASSETS."— Presentation transcript:

1 5.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 5 5 MANAGING HARDWARE HARDWARE ASSETS ASSETS

2 5.2 © 2002 by Prentice Hall LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTSIDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE STORAGE, INPUT, OUTPUT TECHNOLOGIESDESCRIBE STORAGE, INPUT, OUTPUT TECHNOLOGIES COMPARE MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERSCOMPARE MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

3 5.3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORKCOMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK ANALYZE TECHNOLOGY ISSUESANALYZE TECHNOLOGY ISSUES* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

4 5.4 MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGYINFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY SECONDARY STORAGESECONDARY STORAGE STORAGE INPUT & OUTPUT TECHNOLOGIESSTORAGE INPUT & OUTPUT TECHNOLOGIES TYPES OF COMPUTERS & SYSTEMSTYPES OF COMPUTERS & SYSTEMS MANAGING HARDWARE ASSETSMANAGING HARDWARE ASSETS*

5 5.5 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES 1. CENTRALIZATION VERSUS DECENTRALIZATION DEBATE 2. MAKING WISE TECHNOLOGY PURCHASING DECISIONS *

6 5.6 © 2002 by Prentice Hall INPUT D EVICES SECONDARY STORAGE PRIMARY STORAGE COMPUTER COMPONENTS CPU OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES BUSES

7 5.7 © 2002 by Prentice Hall BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/NotBIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BYTE: Group of bits for one characterBYTE: Group of bits for one character –EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 or 9 bits per byte) –ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errorsPARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors* HOW COMPUTERS REPRESENT DATA

8 5.8 © 2002 by Prentice Hall EXAMPLES OF BYTES C: C: A: A: T: T: Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number* EBCDIC ASCII EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system) (assume even-parity system)

9 5.9 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE CPU PRIMARYSTORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE

10 5.10 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC/LOGICUNIT ROM CLOCK

11 5.11 © 2002 by Prentice Hall ALU & CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operationsARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer systemCONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

12 5.12 STEPS NEEDED FOR SINGLE INSTRUCTION PCs & OLDER MACHINES: Microseconds (millionth second)PCs & OLDER MACHINES: Microseconds (millionth second) POWERFUL MACHINES: Nanoseconds (billionth second)POWERFUL MACHINES: Nanoseconds (billionth second)* MACHINE CYCLE

13 5.13 © 2002 by Prentice Hall COMPUTER TIME Millisecond.001 second thousand 15min 40 sec Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days Nanosecond.001microsecond billion 31.7 years Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion 31,700 years * NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND # PER COMPARED # PER COMPARED

14 5.14 © 2002 by Prentice Hall TYPES OF MEMORY RAM: Random Access MemoryRAM: Random Access Memory –Dynamic: Changes thru processing –Static: Remains constant (power on) ROM: Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)ROM: Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) –PROM: Program can be changed once –EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light –EEPROM: Electrically erasable *

15 5.15 © 2002 by Prentice Hall ADDRESSES IN MEMORY Each location can hold data Each location is a REGISTER

16 5.16 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MEMORY SIZE KILOBYTE (KT): 2 10 bytes bytesKILOBYTE (KT): 2 10 bytes bytes MEGABYTE (MB): 2 10 KB... “million” bytesMEGABYTE (MB): 2 10 KB... “million” bytes GIGABYTE (GB): 2 10 MB... “billion” bytesGIGABYTE (GB): 2 10 MB... “billion” bytes TERABYTE (TB): 2 10 GB... “trillion” bytesTERABYTE (TB): 2 10 GB... “trillion” bytes*

17 5.17 © 2002 by Prentice Hall VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU WORD LENGTH: Bits processed at one timeWORD LENGTH: Bits processed at one time MEGAHERTZ: One million cycles per secondMEGAHERTZ: One million cycles per second DATA BUS WIDTH: Bits moved between CPU & other devicesDATA BUS WIDTH: Bits moved between CPU & other devices REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC): Embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speedREDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC): Embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed MultiMedia eXtension (MMX): Enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applicationsMultiMedia eXtension (MMX): Enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications* MICROPROCESSOR

18 5.18 © 2002 by Prentice Hall SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL TASK 1 RESULT TASK 2 RESULT Program CPU Program CPU Program CPU TASK 2 CPU TASK 3 CPU TASK 1 RESULT MASSIVE PARALLEL COMPUTERS CAN HAVE THOUSANDS OF CPUs TO ATTACK LARGE COMPUTING PROBLEMS

19 5.19 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DISKDISK TAPETAPE OPTICAL STORAGEOPTICAL STORAGE* SECONDARY STORAGE

20 5.20 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systemsHARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive DisksRAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PCFLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC*

21 5.21 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DISK PACK STORAGE LARGE SYSTEMSLARGE SYSTEMS RELIABLE STORAGERELIABLE STORAGE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATALARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLEQUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disksTYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks CYLINDER: Same track all surfacesCYLINDER: Same track all surfaces* CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITEHEADS

22 5.22 © 2002 by Prentice Hall TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTOR TRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 STARTOFTRACKS

23 5.23 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CD-ROM: MEGABYTESCD-ROM: MEGABYTES –LAND: Flat parts of disk surface reflects light –PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM): –CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable –CD-RW: CD - Rewritable DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of dataDIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data* OPTICAL STORAGE

24 5.24 © 2002 by Prentice Hall STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILESSTANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool)SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool) RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block)RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block) GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAPGROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIMERECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME* HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3 MAGNETIC TAPE

25 5.25 © 2002 by Prentice Hall ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPEENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDSUSED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS INEXPENSIVEINEXPENSIVE STORED IN SAFE LOCATIONSTORED IN SAFE LOCATION CAN BE REUSEDCAN BE REUSED* MAGNETIC CARTRID GE

26 5.26 © 2002 by Prentice Hall STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN) HIGH-SPEED NETWORKHIGH-SPEED NETWORK CONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICESCONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICES –TAPE LIBRARIES –DISK ARRAYS STORAGE SERVICE PROVIDER: 3rd party rents storage space *

27 5.27 © 2002 by Prentice Hall INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES POINTING DEVICESPOINTING DEVICES SOURCE DATA AUTOMATIONSOURCE DATA AUTOMATION OUTPUT DEVICESOUTPUT DEVICES* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

28 5.28 POINTING DEVICES: KEYBOARDKEYBOARD MOUSEMOUSE –WIRED –INFRA-RED –TRACKBALL –TOUCH PAD JOYSTICKJOYSTICK TOUCH SCREENTOUCH SCREEN* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

29 5.29 SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): Saves characters, formatOPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): Saves characters, format BAR CODE: Identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipmentsBAR CODE: Identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Special ink identifies bank, account, amountMAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Special ink identifies bank, account, amount* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

30 5.30 SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION PEN-BASED INPUT: Digitizes signaturePEN-BASED INPUT: Digitizes signature DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital formDIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form VOICE INPUT DEVICES: Converts spoken word into digital formVOICE INPUT DEVICES: Converts spoken word into digital form SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)* © 2002 by Prentice Hall

31 5.31 OUTPUT DEVICES: CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) PRINTERPRINTER PLOTTERPLOTTER VOICE OUTPUT DEVICEVOICE OUTPUT DEVICE*

32 5.32 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DATA PROCESSING DATA PROCESSING BATCH PROCESSING: Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.BATCH PROCESSING: Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. ON-LINE PROCESSING: Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.ON-LINE PROCESSING: Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.*

33 5.33 © 2002 by Prentice Hall KEYBOARD INPUT BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE OLD MASTER FILE NEW MASTER FILE VALIDATE AND UPDATE ERROR REPORTS REPORTS BATCH PROCESSING

34 5.34 © 2002 by Prentice Hall ON-LINE PROCESSING TRANSACTIONSKEYBOARD PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE MASTER FILE IMMEDIATE INPUT IMMEDIATE PROCESSING IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE

35 5.35 © 2002 by Prentice Hall INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIAINTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATIONTEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION STREAMING TECHNOLOGYSTREAMING TECHNOLOGY MP3: Audio compression standardMP3: Audio compression standard*

36 5.36 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS MAINFRAMEMAINFRAME MIDRANGE & MINICOMPUTERMIDRANGE & MINICOMPUTER SERVERSERVER PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) WORKSTATIONWORKSTATION SUPERCOMPUTERSUPERCOMPUTER*

37 5.37 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MAINFRAME LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTERLARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONSCOMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS MASSIVE DATAMASSIVE DATA COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONSCOMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS* MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second

38 5.38 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MIDRANGE/MINICOMPUTER MIDDLE-RANGEMIDDLE-RANGE 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABSUNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAMEUSED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME*

39 5.39 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DESKTOP OR PORTABLEDESKTOP OR PORTABLE 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERSPERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS AFFORDABLEAFFORDABLE MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTSMANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS CAN BE NETWORKEDCAN BE NETWORKED* MICROCOMPUTER

40 5.40 © 2002 by Prentice Hall NETWORKED COMPUTERSNETWORKED COMPUTERS CLIENT: User (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not haveCLIENT: User (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have SERVER: Component (computer) having desired data, application, communicationsSERVER: Component (computer) having desired data, application, communications* CLIENT / SERVER

41 5.41 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CLIENT SERVER REQUESTS DATA, SERVICE USER INTERFACE APPLICATIONFUNCTIONDATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES CLIENT / SERVER

42 5.42 © 2002 by Prentice Hall WORKSTATION DESKTOP COMPUTERDESKTOP COMPUTER POWERFUL GRAPHICSPOWERFUL GRAPHICS EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIESEXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES MULTI-TASKINGMULTI-TASKING USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION: e.g.; CAD, engineering, graphicsUSUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION: e.g.; CAD, engineering, graphics*

43 5.43 © 2002 by Prentice Hall SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND HIGHLY SOPHISTICATEDHIGHLY SOPHISTICATED COMPLEX COMPUTATIONSCOMPLEX COMPUTATIONS FASTEST CPUsFASTEST CPUs LARGE SIMULATIONSLARGE SIMULATIONS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTSSTATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS EXPENSIVEEXPENSIVE*

44 5.44 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CENTRALIZED: PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITECENTRALIZED: PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE –ONE STANDARD –GREATER CONTROL DISTRIBUTED: PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKSDISTRIBUTED: PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS –MORE FLEXIBILITY –FASTER RESPONSE * CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED

45 5.45 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DOWNSIZING TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL REDUCES COSTREDUCES COST SPEEDS RESULTS TO USERSPEEDS RESULTS TO USER COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BESTCOMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST COOPERATIVE PROCESSINGCOOPERATIVE PROCESSING*

46 5.46 © 2002 by Prentice Hall SHARING COMPUTERS SHARING COMPUTERS NETWORK COMPUTER: Simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server)NETWORK COMPUTER: Simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING: Networked computers share data, disk space, processing. Parallel processing on a smaller scalePEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING: Networked computers share data, disk space, processing. Parallel processing on a smaller scale*

47 5.47 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MANAGING HARDWARE ASSETS UNDERSTAND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTSUNDERSTAND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS DETERMINE TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP: Hardware, software, installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructureDETERMINE TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP: Hardware, software, installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure PLAN CAPACITY & SCALABILITYPLAN CAPACITY & SCALABILITY IDENTIFY TRENDSIDENTIFY TRENDS*

48 5.48 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 5 5 MANAGING HARDWARE HARDWARE ASSETS ASSETS


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