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1 Storing Data Chapter 4. 2 Computer Memory Memory is the name given to that part of a computer in which data are held. Computers have two types of memory.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Storing Data Chapter 4. 2 Computer Memory Memory is the name given to that part of a computer in which data are held. Computers have two types of memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Storing Data Chapter 4

2 2 Computer Memory Memory is the name given to that part of a computer in which data are held. Computers have two types of memory. These are: Internal memory (also known as main memory) Backing storage

3 3 Internal Memory (Main Memory) Internal memory is used by the computer to store programs and data that are currently being used. Internal memory is used by the computer to store programs and data that are currently being used. Internal memory can not hold all the data and programs that a computer might need. It only holds the data and programs that are in use at a particular moment in time, and empties and refills itself as different programs and files are used. Internal memory is volatile memory. This is because this memory is emptied (i.e. its contents are lost) when the computer is turned off.

4 4 RAM (Random Access Memory) Random Access Memory is the part of the computers memory where programs and data are stored when they are being used. When the computer is switched on, the operating instructions, computer programs, and data are moved into the RAM as required. RAM is usually measured in megabytes. The more RAM a computer has, the more it can do. RAM empties every time the computer is switched off - this is why work has to be saved before the computer is switched off!

5 5 RAM

6 6 ROM (Read Only Memory) Read Only Memory is memory that is not lost when the computer is switched off. All computers have a small amount of ROM. This is so that essential instructions can be stored. Instructions stored in the ROM enable the computer to check the hardware and load the operating systems.

7 7 Types of ROMs PROM EPROM

8 8 Backing storage Backing storage is memory that is used to store data and programs that are needed to be used again and again. This memory is not lost when the computer is turned off. The type of the media can be magnetic or optical

9 9 Magnetic Media Hard Disk Floppy Disk Magnetic Tape

10 10 Hard Disk A typical hard drive on a personal computer will have a storage capacity of 160 (or more) gigabytes. A hard disk has a circular, magnetised surface on which the data is stored. A hard disk spins at a speed of between 60 and 120 revolutions per second. The surface of a hard disk is divided up into Sectors and Tracks. Data is stored in the blocks created by the Sectors and Tracks Data is stored in the blocks created by the Sectors and Tracks

11 11 Hard Disk

12 12 Old IBM Hard Disk Drive (1979)

13 13 Floppy Disk A high density floppy disk can hold up to 1.44 megabytes of data. To protect the magnetised, plastic disk on which the data is stored, a floppy disk has a hard plastic case. A sliding metal cover protects the magnetised, plastic disk when it is not in the floppy disk drive. Floppy disks are also divided up into Sectors and Tracks.

14 14 Floppy Disks

15 15 Magnetic Tape Is a storage medium consisting of a flexible plastic tape covered with magnetic material on one side and kept on spools. It is similar to audio tapes It is a cheap way to store a large amount of data. (up to 800GB)

16 16 Magnetic Tapes

17 17 Optical Media CD-ROM CD-R CD-RW DVD

18 18 CD-ROM (Compact Disk – ROM) This is the most common type of CD available, and is the way in which most modern software is supplied to individual personal computers. It is a memory storage device but because it can not be written to it can not be regarded as a backing store.

19 19 CD-R (CD-Recordable) These are supplied blank and can be written to by CD Writer drives. They can be used to store large amounts of data, but once used, they can not be re-used. They can be used to store large amounts of data, but once used, they can not be re-used.

20 20 CD-RW (CD – ReWritable) These are supplied blank and can be written to by CD Writer drives. They can be used to store large amounts of data, and can be written to many times, just like a hard disk. They can be used to store large amounts of data, and can be written to many times, just like a hard disk.

21 21 DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) The DVD is now beginning to replace the CD The DVD is now beginning to replace the CD as the main method of bulk saving data on personal computers. The reason for this is that they are capable of storing much larger amounts of data. A DVD can store 17 gigabytes of data This is equal to 26 CD-ROMs or 12,000 floppy disks! This is equal to 26 CD-ROMs or 12,000 floppy disks!

22 22 Other Storage Devices USB Flash Drive A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board typically in a plastic or metal casing, making the drive sturdy enough to be carried about in a pocket, as a key fob, or on a lanyard. Flash drives are particularly popular among system and network administrators, who load them with configuration information and software used for system maintenance, troubleshooting, and recovery.

23 23 USB Flash disk uses Application and file carriers To boot operating systems Music storing and Audio players

24 24 Measuring Computer Memory A common system of measurement is used to measure computer memory. These are: Bits Bytes

25 25 Bits Computers use electronic circuits to perform the tasks they are programmed to complete. These circuits can be in one of two states - On or Off. In computer programming, when a circuit is On it is given the numerical value 1 in the binary system. In computer programming, when a circuit is Off it is given the numerical value 0 in the binary system. Transistors on silicon chips can store these values (Binary Digits).

26 26 Bytes Bytes are units of computer memory. A byte is made up from eight bits. Each character (letter, number, or punctuation mark) is made up of eight bits. We need 5 bytes to store the word HOUSE

27 27 Bytes 1 kilobyte = 1,024 bytes (2 10 ). 1 megabyte = 1,024 kilobytes = 1,048,576 bytes (2 20 ). 1 gigabyte = 1,024 megabytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes (2 30 ). 1 terabyte = 1,024 gigabytes = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes (2 40 ). 1 terabyte = 1,024 gigabytes = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes (2 40 ).


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