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Technology Guide 1 Hardware T1-1. IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-2 Representing Data in Computer Coding Schemes –ASCII (American National Standard.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Guide 1 Hardware T1-1. IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-2 Representing Data in Computer Coding Schemes –ASCII (American National Standard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Guide 1 Hardware T1-1

2 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-2 Representing Data in Computer Coding Schemes –ASCII (American National Standard Code for information Interchange) –EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Binary Digit, or Bit –Binary 1 or 0 Byte –8 bits Uni-code –16-bit code that has the capacity of representing more than 65,000 characters and symbols

3 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-3 Representing Pictures, Time Pictures –Pixel : measure the color (or light level) of each cell of the grid Time –Millisecond = 1/1000 seconds –Microsenond = 1/1,000,000 –Nanosecond = 1/1,000,000,000 –Picosencond = 1/1,000,000,000,000

4 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-4 Representing Size of Bytes Size is measured by the number of bytes –Kilobyte = 1,000 bytes (actually 1024) –Megabyte = 1,000 kilobytes = 106 bytes –Gigabyte = 109 bytes –Terabyte = 1012 bytes –Petabyte = bytes –Exabyte = bytes

5 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-5 Hardware GenerationsFeature Circuitry Primary storage Cycle times Average cost 1 st Vacuum tubes 2 KB 100 millisecs $2.5 million 2 nd Transistors 64 KB 10 microsecs $250 thousand 3 rd Integrated circuits 4 KB 500 nanosecs $25 thousand Feature Circuitry Primary storage Cycle times Average cost 4 th (early) LSI and VLSI 16 MB 800 picosecs $2.5 thousand 4 th (1988) ULSL 64 MB 2,000 picosecs $2.0 thousand 4 th (2000) GSI 128 MB 4,000 picosecs $1.5 thousand

6 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-6 Other Generations Fifth-Generation Computer –use Massive Parallel processing to process multiple instructions simultaneously Future Generations –DNA (Deoxycomputer acid) : coding a problem into the alphabet and then creating conditions under which DNA molecules are formed that encode all possible solutions of a problem Optical Computer –uses beams of light instead of electrons

7 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-7 Types of Computers Supercomputers –the computers with the most processing power –valuable for large simulation models of real- world phenomena, where complex mathematical representations and calculations are required, or for image creation and processing Massively-Parallel Computers –modern problems in science and engineering, such as structural engineering, fluid mechanics, and other large scale physical simulations

8 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-8 Types of Computers Mainframes –large corporations, where data processing is centralized and large databases are maintained Minicomputers –widespread acceptance within the scientific community and, more recently, within the business community

9 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-9 Types of Computers Microcomputers (PCs) –Four classifications Desktop personal computer Laptop computers Notebooks Palmtop computers –Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) a palmtop computer that combines a fast processor with a multitasking operating system using a pen rather than keyboard input for handwriting recognition –Smart Cards Contain a small CPU, memory, and an input/output device that allow these “computers” to used in everyday activities such as person identification and banking

10 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-10 Types of Computers Network Computer and Terminals –Network computer (NC) a desktop terminal that does not store software programs or data permanently –Windows-based terminals (WBTs) a subset of the NC access Windows applications on central servers as if those applications were running locally

11 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-11 The Components of Computer Hardware Input Devices Input Devices Output Devices Output Devices Communication Devices Communication Devices Control Unit Arithmetic-Logic Unit Primary Storage Secondary Storage Secondary Storage Central Processing Unit Bus External Network

12 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-12 Microprocessor The Central Process Unit (CPU) –The center of all computer- processing activities, where all processing is controlled, data are manipulated, arithmetic computations are performed, and logical comparisons are made.

13 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-13 Microprocessor Primary Storage –integrated circuits are interconnected layers of etched semiconductor materials forming electrical transistor memory units with “on-off” positions that direct he electrical current passing through them

14 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-14 Microprocessor Buses –data is passed in electronic form via this channel –data bus; address bus; control bus –bus width : capacity of a bus Control Unit –reads instructions and directs the other components of the computer system to perform the functions required by the program –machine cycle : series of operations required to process a single machine instruction

15 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-15 Microprocessor Arithmetic-Logic Unit : internal memory –Random-Access Memory (RAM) : the place in which the CPU stores the instructions and data it is processing Dynamic random access memories(DRAMs) Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) –Read-Only Memory (ROM) : continually retained program instructions Programmable read-only memory (PROM) Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM)

16 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-16 Microprocessor Microprocessor Speed –The speed of a chip depends on four things: the clock speed, the word length, the data bus width, and the design of the chip Parallel Processing –A computer system with two or more processors –Systems with large numbers of processors are called massively parallel processor (MPP) systems

17 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-17 Secondary Storage Magnetic tape Magnetic disks Hard disk Zip disks Optical storage devices Compact disk read-only memory (CD- ROM) disk –write once, read many (WORM) –Rewritable optical disks –Digital video disk (DVD)

18 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-18 Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Touch Screen Touchpad Light Pen Joystick Automated Teller Machines Electronic Forms Whiteboard

19 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-19 Source Data Automation Point of Sale Terminals Bar Code Scanner Optical Character Reader Handwriting Recognizers Voice Recognizers Magnetic Ink Character Readers Digitizers Digital Cameras

20 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-20 Output Devices Monitors Impact Printers Nonimpact Printers Plotters Voice Output

21 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T1-21 Multimedia A group of human-machine communication media, some of which can be combined in one application Involves the use of computers to improve human-machine communication by using a combination of media Merges the capabilities of computers with television sets, VCRs, CD players, and other entertainment devices

22 Copyright  2001 John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner in unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Son, Inc. Adopters of the textbook are granted permission to make back-up copies for his/her own use only, to make copies for distribution to student of the course the textbook is used in, and to modify this material to best suit their instructional needs. Under no circumstances can copies be made for resale. The publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban 6-22


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