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Welcome to U.S. History European Colonies American Revolution America’s Government Westward Expansion Civil War & Reconstruction Industrial & Progressive.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to U.S. History European Colonies American Revolution America’s Government Westward Expansion Civil War & Reconstruction Industrial & Progressive."— Presentation transcript:


2 Welcome to U.S. History European Colonies American Revolution America’s Government Westward Expansion Civil War & Reconstruction Industrial & Progressive Age Great Depression WWI & WWII Cold War Civil Rights America Today

3 About Mr. Gould Masters from the University of MN (1998) Live in St. Paul Two Daughters o 10 and 13 years old Enjoy outdoor activities, travel and music o Sailing, camping, fly-fishing, snowsports

4 Weekly Schedule Day10 minutes 8 minutes 25 minutes5” MNewsVocabNotes, activityjournal TNewsVocabNotes, activityjournal WNewsVocabNotes, activityjournal RDocument Day (starting next week) you create a fact, opinion and advice essay each week I grade your journals and meet with kids concerning class FVocabulary & news/class quiz Four kids’ news presentations


6 Materials Needed Your agenda A 3 ring binder Tabbed section dividers o Notes o Vocab o Journals o News o Extra credit stamp sheet Pen or pencil

7 Hall Pass You need your agenda to leave class, no excuses o If you do not have your agenda, you cannot leave class Fill out your agenda passes to leave class to go to the bathroom or to your locker o I will sign your agenda

8 You are here to learn Take your education seriously This class is to get you ready to be an educated citizen o to make America a better place when you are voting Your life is simple now o do your job 7

9 Expectations Come to class prepared and on time o Pencil; paper; binder Don’t touch my desk, drawers or podium o I have no materials to share o Tape, stapler and 3 hole punch are on the table Do not talk while others are talking o Respect each other o Don’t interrupt each other Raise your hand with questions Meet with me concerning your absences and late work o Use my classroom web pageweb page 8

10 Consequences Work is late if it is in your locker o Late work is worth half of the original points I will remove kids from class who are not contributing I will call parents I will give detentions 9

11 Extra Credit During class discussions you can contribute and receive a stamp o Keep these stamps on a sheet of paper in your binder The stamps are added up at the end of the quarter o One point per stamp If you have all your normal work handed in, I will add your extra credit to your grade The grade can only increase by 5%

12 Thursday’s Document Day Reading and writing; where you are the expert

13 Document Day Read the document that I have selected

14 Fact, Opinions and Advice On a sheet of paper list 10 facts concerning the material you just read o Rank the facts from most important to least Next list 10 opinions that were in the reading o Put an a or d if you agree or disagree with the opinion We study history to make the future better o Write an essay with complete sentences giving your opinion or advice to a person or item from the reading, concerning this topic

15 Paragraph Suggestions Don’t use pronouns use proper nouns. (Do not use she, if, he, they, them etc.) Don’t write “This is what I think… or I would say… or I would do.” ( be direct) Pick one main idea and then explain and support it. Don’t give your reasons in your very first sentence. Avoid this “Pocahontas should have ran because the English had disease and the English were greedy and starving. Instead “Pocahontas should have ran from the English for many reasons… then explain.”

16 Note taking Tips Use headings o Make the headings obvious (underline, CAPS, Bold, highlighter or cursive Use abbreviations & symbols o Your not going to have enough time to write down all of the material, your just not – so don’t try Be sure to write down items that the teacher repeats

17 There are 8 Social Sciences History Political Science Anthropology Sociology Economics Psychology Geography Theology

18 Political Science Studies how decisions are made for a group of people o Governments 9th grade

19 Anthropology Studies cultures over time Includes Archaeology (Indiana Jones) and the study of artifacts

20 Sociology How people are organized and act as a group 12th grade

21 Economics Studies the production and distribution of goods 10th grade

22 Psychology Studies how people behave and why 12th grade

23 Geography Studies the distribution of earthbound phenomenon 8th grade, 10th grade

24 Theology Studies the religions of a group of people college

25 History Studies events from the past o Facts Columbus sailed from Spain to the Caribbean in 1492 o Opinions Columbus was cruel to the Indians o Advice for the future Take time to learn from and respect other cultures

26 Can History Change? Villain? Hero?

27 Can History Change? Explorers’ reputations are notoriously volatile things. Consider Robert Falcon Scott, the British naval officer who lost the race to the South Pole in 1911 and froze to death on the way home.

28 LOSER! Norwegian Roald Amundsen beats Scott to the pole on December 14, 1911. Scott makes it there a MONTH later!

29 HERO! After a grueling march back, Scott dies in his tent...only 11 miles from a depot equipped with food and oil. Hailed as a symbol of British courage.

30 Failure! In Scott and Amundsen, a 1979 study, a British historian uncovers Scott’s ineptitude with animals and cold. Scott’s reputation heads due south.

31 VICTIM! In a new history of Scott’s expedition, Dr. Susan Solomon tries to redeem his rep, blaming his misfortune on an unusually harsh Antarctic autumn.

32 Uh-oh! A new play about Scott called Antarctica came out in London last year. The play is about 6 men who split off from Scott’s party and made it home without him.

33 PROP: A tool for Historians Life is full of information and data o Can the data and info be trusted? o Which information is the best? How do we know what to trust? PROP can help!

34 (P) Primary or Secondary Primary is a first-hand account o A real witness o Someone who was there Secondary is a second-hand account o A person who interviewed a real witness o A person who studied the topic and then they had a later opinion about what happened Where did the secondary source come from

35 (R) Reason to Lie? Does the source of the information have a reason to lie?

36 (O) Other Evidence? Does the source give other sources of evidence in varying forms?

37 (P) Public or Private Was the source of the information public or private? o A public report allows the audience to object or add additional facts

38 Exploration of the Americas New Spain New France New Netherlands

39 Exploration Summary 15 th Century 15 th Century o Find a trade route to Asia and the Indies 16 th Century o A race to claim the land in the Americas o Wars of conquest against the American Indians Smallpox disease kills 70% of the Indians 17 th Century 17 th Century o Colonization of the Americas begins 18 th Century o Colonization continues o Europe fights each other for control of colonies

40 Nations Compared NationWhereWhoWhatOpinions SpainSW US & Florida Latin America Mexico South America Conquistadors (conquerors or exploring soldiers) Gold, Silver, Riches and slaves Extremely cruel FranceCanada Mississippi and Ohio River valleys Great Lakes Fur Traders Missionaries Furs Christianity Nicest of them all EnglandEast Coast of US Washington & Oregon FarmersCreate businesses


42 Columbian Exchange Diseases and technologies also spread o 70% of the American Indians died of diseases

43 New Spain Conquistadors o Serve God & the King o Get rich o Hernandes Cortes Conquer Aztecs in Mexico o Francisco Pizarro Controlled Incan empire after killing emperor

44 How did the Spanish Win? Superior military equipment o Steel armor and guns Aztecs and Incas relied never have seen horses Thought Spanish might be Gods European diseases

45 “Laws of the Indies” How the colonies should be organized… 3 settlements o Pueblos o Presidios o Missions 4 Social Classes o Peninsulares o Creoles o Mestizos o Indians

46 New France Port Royal (1605) 1st French Settlement Little gold and silver unlike New Spain Profited from… o Fishing, trapping, and trading

47 French King controlled New France Grew slowly so King sent 1,000 farmers to colony Coureurs de bois- free from government control o Lived in the woods

48 France and Native Americans Did not attempt to conquer the Indians Indians taught the French trapping and survival skills (snowshoes and canoes) French missionaries taught Native Americans about Christianity

49 New Netherlands Hoped to profit from their discoveries in the Americas Bought Manhattan from the Indians Built trading posts along the Hudson River Enlarged their colony by taking over New Sweden

50 “On the island of Manhattan, and in its environs, there may be four or five hundred men of different sects and nations: the Director General told me that there were men of eighteen different languages; they are scattered here and there on the river, above and below, as the beauty and convenience of the spot has invited each to settle.” o Father Isaac Jogues, “Narratives of New Netherland,” 1609-1664

51 Dutch and Native Americans Befriended the Iroquois people o Helped fight against French and Hurons Tried to convert Native Americans into Christians Traded knives, copper kettles, muskets and gun powder for hunting and warfare Introduced alcohol which had a harsh life on Native Americans lives

52 Dutch Influences still here today Ice Skating St. Nicks birthday Dutch master “boss” New Amsterdam sailed “yachts” Children munched on “Cookies” Rode through the snow on “Sleighs”

53 Colony a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation. Parent NationYearPlace Spain1565St. Augustine, Florida France1608Quebec City, Canada England1607Jamestown, Virginia

54 Map depicting Sir Francis Drake's 1586 attack on St. AugustineFrancis Drake

55 Quebec City, French, 1608 A walled city founded by Champlain

56 Jamestown, Virginia Chesapeake Bay

57 Jamestown’s Population

58 European Settlement

59 Slavery in the colonies Slaves were used in the colonies from the start (1619) 15 million slaves came from West Africa o 80% of the slaves were used in the Caribbean or Brazil o 17% of the slaves died on the ocean voyage Slaves were used to increase profits on colonial businesses Slaves were sold at auction o On average, 2 ships left Africa full of slaves every day for 160 years


61 Slave Trade

62 PIG EARS This is a tool for studying culture and places Each of the 7 PIGEARS letters stands for a different part of culture o Helps us categorize culture and place

63 Political o Who has power and control in a society? King; governor; president o How are decisions made? voting o How are people organized? Land ownership

64 Intellectual How do we learn? o Language o Education What is in our brains? o Technologies o Ideas What are we capable of? o Tools

65 Geography Where do we live and what it is like? o Topography Hilly/flat o Climate Rainy/Dry o Soils

66 Economic What the culture does for work to sustain life? How are good and supplies distributed? Trade Natural resources o Forests; mining; farming; water Currency or money used?

67 Artistic How do we express ourselves? o Dance, painting, music, etc. Items we produce by choice in our free time?

68 Religion How did we get here? Where are we going when we die? o Monotheistic beliefs Believe in one god o (Christianity, Islam) o Polytheistic Believe in many gods

69 Social How do we relate to one another? What are the traditions o Customs o Routines Music; dress Gender roles in a society Peaceful or warlike

70 Notes When categorizing culture using PIGEARS, often cultural traits will belong to several PIGEARS attributes o Farming Intellectual (irrigation) Geography (climate supports plants) Economic (grow crops for consumption / trade) Social (if a specific gender or age are the farmers)

71 West African Culture (PIGEARS) Political o People were organized in large tribes and clans who had control over large tracts of land. Elders and leaders generally governed the tribes, male dominant Intellectual o History was recorded in both written and spoken (oral) forms. Children were taught in the home and were 'raised by the village'. Slingshots, irrigation, nets, metals, hands-on work

72 West African Culture Geography o West Africa coastal regions, warm year around, equatorial, lowlands, less than 30” of rain annually, poor soils Economic o Grazing of animals (goats, chickens, etc.), fishing, some farming Artistic o Lively and colorful art, dance, music, beads, drumming. Wood carving and leather

73 West African Culture Religion o Monotheistic. Most of the tribes were Muslims, the religion of Islam. Allah=God, Mohammed was messiah, Jesus was a prophet, bible was Koran. There were few pockets of Christianity in the region too. Social o Many languages were spoken based largely upon the tribe that a person was a part of. The people lived in permanent villages where the people would live off the land. Men had more power and control in the family. Elders were greatly respected regardless of gender. The concept of family was much broader than America's view today. Boys were “warriors”.

74 Colonies Grew After Jamestown (1607) and then Plymouth (1620) were successful, more colonies were created 8 of the 13 colonies were created as businesses o Massachusetts was created for the Puritan religion They believed they were living “pure” as the bible intended o Rhode Island was created for religious freedom Rhode Island broke away from Massachusetts because Massachusetts was to strict with their religion o Pennsylvania and Maryland were created for political and religious freedoms

75 Colonial Comparisons REGIONS: (8X4)NEW ENGLANDMIDDLESOUTHERN POLITICAL Town Meetings where women could attend Assembly of elected white, male, property owners INTELECTUAL Mandatory public schools for everyone Private schools through the churches Tutors for the rich (5%), usually at the plantation GEOGRAPHY Poor soils, good harbors, cold winters, mild summers Good soils, great harbors, moderate winters, warm summers Great soils, marginal harbors, mild winters, hot summers ECONOMIC Manufacturing, lumber products, shipbuilding, merchants, whaling Trade, grain farms, seaports, and iron mills Plantations for cotton, rice, tobacco, and indigo ARTISTIC Writers and poets like Anne Bradstreet or William Bradford Metal works Benjamin Franklin Alexander Hamilton Architecture, theatre, music, and dancing Most Artistic RELIGIOUS State supported churches with taxes. Puritans Very Strict New religions could be formed and practiced; Quakers Prodestant Church was required. Taxes were payed to the Church of England. SOCIAL [Colonial Life Expectancy: Male, 45; Female, 38 (4:1 Male/Female Ratio)] Most equality (5% of slaves) Middle equality (15% of slaves) Least equality (80% of slaves)

76 New England Green color was French Pink and red was British Hudson River and NYC were Dutch


78 Journals

79 Your Favorite Hobbies Record and describe the hobbies you enjoy the most o Sports o Crafts o Activities What else would you like to learn to do?

80 Which College Major Of the 8 Social Science presented in class, which one would you be most interested in studying and doing for a job? o Why? o What would that job be like? o Where would you work? o What would you affect? Which one would you like the least o Why?

81 What’s Your Opinion Do you think the facts, opinions or advice we learn about History are the most important o Why do you think that? o Can these facts, opinions and advice always be trusted?

82 What’s Your Opinion Do you believe in the death penalty as a punishment for crimes? o Why or why not o Are there other solutions

83 Which Continent 4 U? The Americas and Europe were similar and different in 1492 o If you lived back then, which continent would you have preferred to live on Why What would your favorite part of your life be Would you prefer the food choices or the natural landscape of the place you chose

84 Misrepresented History Explain a time in your life when the whole story was not told about something that happened to you or a friend o Did the whole story or truth ever come out o How did you feel when your side of the story was not understood or cared about Does this happen a lot What could be done to make sure all sides of a story are understood

85 Hero or Villain Do you think Columbus was a hero or a villain?

86 Histories Lessons What are the biggest three lessons from the past that Americans should know about to make America better in the future o What were some of Americas mistakes in the past o What were some things that America should make sure we never do again why

87 Trade Routes You have been reading and mapping European trade routes o Why was Europe trading and travelling so much o Do you think this was a good idea why

88 Holy Lands The Mid-east was the birthplace and center of Judaism, Christianity and Islam o All of these religions want to worship in their most holy places o Who do you think deserves to have control of the holy lands today why Are there other solutions

89 Early Explorers We know the Vikings came to North America and Columbus 500 years later o Do you think they were the only people to reach North America for those 500 years o Were the Vikings the first Why do you think that Consider the map of the world o What about Japan, China or Korea

90 Agenda Use On a scale of 1-10 how would you rate how well you use your agenda to keep track of your day o 1 means you need to improve o 10 means your doing great What could you do to improve How would you do that

91 Interesting Vocabulary Words Which 2 vocabulary words are the most interesting new words to you o why

92 Familiar Vocabulary Words Which of the vocabulary words did you already know o Where did you hear them used before o In what context Use these words in new complete sentences in your reflection Are you ready for Friday’s quiz?

93 PROP Journal Of the four parts to PROP, which part do you think is most important to determine if a source of information is credible and trustworthy or not o Primary or secondary o Reason to lie o Other evidence o Public or private

94 Columbian Exchange America, Europe and Africa changed forever because of what Columbus started o Which change do you think was the most important or had the biggest impact why o What crop or food item had the biggest impact in your opinion why

95 Pocahontas Pocahontas was kidnapped by the British and used as ransom She was a Powhatan princess with a lot of talent o If you could go back in time what would you want to learn from Pocahontas o What would you suggest to her What advice would you have o What would you do differently in Jamestown if you were British What if you were a Powhatan o If you went to Jamestown in 1607 would you want to be English or Powhatan? why

96 2 nd Jamestown Ship More than 90% of Jamestown settlers died o However England sent over a second ship Why o What were the reasons for a second ship do you think Would you have gone on the second ship Who do you think was on the second ship o What kind of people, tools or items would you have brought from England?

97 Greed Slavery was a product of greed and racism (this is my opinion) o What are your opinions concerning the slave trade o Could the colonies have started differently How The colonies were created as businesses to make money o Was that right, could it have been different o Would that have changed our lives today

98 Weekend What was the favorite part of your weekend o Huh, tell me – what was it?’ o Why o Are you still stoked from it o Do you wanna do what was super fun again another weekend Can you

99 Which Colony? If you had to choose a colony from your map to live in, which one would you choose o Why o What would be the best things about living there o What would you do for work For fun?

100 West Africa or Colonies If you lived in 1750 would you prefer to live in the colonies in the Americas or in West Africa where Kunta Kinte was living? o Why o What would you enjoy about living there o What would you like most o What would you like the least

101 West African Culture West Africa had many unique aspects to it (Political; Intellectual; Geography; Economic; Artistic; Religion; Social) o What part of West African culture did you find the most interesting Why In what ways

102 o How was that cultural aspect different than the cultures in other places Europe America American Indians

103 Your Colony You are researching a colony o What aspect of your colonies PIGEARS do you find the most interesting? Why

104 A day in your colony If you were a kid in your colony, what would be a typical day be like? o School o Food o Culture; toys o Your home life o Your work o What would your parents be like

105 Colony Brochure What has been your favorite part of your brochure o Why What part was the easiest to create o Why What part was the hardest o Why

106 Colony Brochure What do you think about this project o Do you like it o Should I change it How and why o Is the brochure too much work Is it too simple or too hard?

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