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Welcome to U.S. History European Colonies Great Depression

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1 Welcome to U.S. History European Colonies Great Depression
American Revolution WWI & WWII America’s Government Cold War Westward Expansion Civil Rights Civil War & Reconstruction America Today Industrial & Progressive Age

2 About Mr. Gould Masters from the University of MN (1998)
Live in St. Paul Two Daughters 10 and 13 years old Enjoy outdoor activities, travel and music Sailing, camping, fly-fishing, snowsports

3 Vocabulary & news/class quiz
Weekly Schedule Day 10 minutes 8 minutes 25 minutes 5” M News Vocab Notes, activity journal T W R Document Day (starting next week) you create a fact, opinion and advice essay each week I grade your journals and meet with kids concerning class F Vocabulary & news/class quiz Four kids’ news presentations


5 Materials Needed Your agenda A 3 ring binder Tabbed section dividers
Notes Vocab Journals News Extra credit stamp sheet Pen or pencil

6 Hall Pass You need your agenda to leave class, no excuses
If you do not have your agenda, you cannot leave class Fill out your agenda passes to leave class to go to the bathroom or to your locker I will sign your agenda

7 You are here to learn Take your education seriously
This class is to get you ready to be an educated citizen to make America a better place when you are voting Your life is simple now do your job

8 Expectations Come to class prepared and on time
Pencil; paper; binder Don’t touch my desk, drawers or podium I have no materials to share Tape, stapler and 3 hole punch are on the table Do not talk while others are talking Respect each other Don’t interrupt each other Raise your hand with questions Meet with me concerning your absences and late work Use my classroom web page

9 Consequences Work is late if it is in your locker
Late work is worth half of the original points I will remove kids from class who are not contributing I will call parents I will give detentions

10 Extra Credit During class discussions you can contribute and receive a stamp Keep these stamps on a sheet of paper in your binder The stamps are added up at the end of the quarter One point per stamp If you have all your normal work handed in, I will add your extra credit to your grade The grade can only increase by 5%

11 Thursday’s Document Day
Reading and writing; where you are the expert

12 Document Day Read the document that I have selected

13 Fact, Opinions and Advice
On a sheet of paper list 10 facts concerning the material you just read Rank the facts from most important to least Next list 10 opinions that were in the reading Put an a or d if you agree or disagree with the opinion We study history to make the future better Write an essay with complete sentences giving your opinion or advice to a person or item from the reading, concerning this topic

14 Paragraph Suggestions
Don’t use pronouns use proper nouns. (Do not use she, if, he, they, them etc.) Don’t write “This is what I think… or I would say… or I would do.” ( be direct) Pick one main idea and then explain and support it. Don’t give your reasons in your very first sentence. Avoid this “Pocahontas should have ran because the English had disease and the English were greedy and starving. Instead “Pocahontas should have ran from the English for many reasons… then explain.”

15 Note taking Tips Use headings Use abbreviations & symbols
Make the headings obvious (underline, CAPS, Bold, highlighter or cursive Use abbreviations & symbols Your not going to have enough time to write down all of the material, your just not – so don’t try Be sure to write down items that the teacher repeats

16 There are 8 Social Sciences
History Political Science Anthropology Sociology Economics Psychology Geography Theology

17 Political Science Studies how decisions are made for a group of people
Governments 9th grade

18 Anthropology Studies cultures over time
Includes Archaeology (Indiana Jones) and the study of artifacts

19 Sociology How people are organized and act as a group 12th grade

20 Economics Studies the production and distribution of goods 10th grade

21 Psychology Studies how people behave and why 12th grade

22 Geography Studies the distribution of earthbound phenomenon
8th grade, 10th grade

23 Theology Studies the religions of a group of people college

24 History Studies events from the past Facts
Columbus sailed from Spain to the Caribbean in 1492 Opinions Columbus was cruel to the Indians Advice for the future Take time to learn from and respect other cultures

25 Can History Change? Villain? Hero?

26 Can History Change? Explorers’ reputations are notoriously volatile things. Consider Robert Falcon Scott, the British naval officer who lost the race to the South Pole in 1911 and froze to death on the way home.

27 LOSER! Norwegian Roald Amundsen beats Scott to the pole on December 14, 1911. Scott makes it there a MONTH later!

28 HERO! After a grueling march back, Scott dies in his tent...only 11 miles from a depot equipped with food and oil. Hailed as a symbol of British courage.

29 Failure! In Scott and Amundsen, a 1979 study, a British historian uncovers Scott’s ineptitude with animals and cold. Scott’s reputation heads due south.

30 VICTIM! In a new history of Scott’s expedition, Dr. Susan Solomon tries to redeem his rep, blaming his misfortune on an unusually harsh Antarctic autumn.

31 Uh-oh! A new play about Scott called Antarctica came out in London last year. The play is about 6 men who split off from Scott’s party and made it home without him.

32 PROP: A tool for Historians
Life is full of information and data Can the data and info be trusted? Which information is the best? How do we know what to trust? PROP can help!

33 (P) Primary or Secondary
Primary is a first-hand account A real witness Someone who was there Secondary is a second-hand account A person who interviewed a real witness A person who studied the topic and then they had a later opinion about what happened Where did the secondary source come from

34 (R) Reason to Lie? Does the source of the information have a reason to lie?

35 (O) Other Evidence? Does the source give other sources of evidence in varying forms?

36 (P) Public or Private Was the source of the information public or private? A public report allows the audience to object or add additional facts

37 Exploration of the Americas
New Spain New France New Netherlands

38 Exploration Summary 15th Century 16th Century 17th Century
Find a trade route to Asia and the Indies 16th Century A race to claim the land in the Americas Wars of conquest against the American Indians Smallpox disease kills 70% of the Indians 17th Century Colonization of the Americas begins 18th Century Colonization continues Europe fights each other for control of colonies

39 Nations Compared Nation Where Who What Opinions Spain SW US & Florida
Latin America Mexico South America Conquistadors (conquerors or exploring soldiers) Gold, Silver, Riches and slaves Extremely cruel France Canada Mississippi and Ohio River valleys Great Lakes Fur Traders Missionaries Furs Christianity Nicest of them all England East Coast of US Washington & Oregon Farmers Create businesses


41 Columbian Exchange Diseases and technologies also spread
70% of the American Indians died of diseases

42 New Spain Conquistadors Serve God & the King Get rich Hernandes Cortes
Conquer Aztecs in Mexico Francisco Pizarro Controlled Incan empire after killing emperor

43 How did the Spanish Win? Superior military equipment
Steel armor and guns Aztecs and Incas relied never have seen horses Thought Spanish might be Gods European diseases

44 “Laws of the Indies” How the colonies should be organized…
3 settlements Pueblos Presidios Missions 4 Social Classes Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Indians

45 New France Port Royal (1605) 1st French Settlement
Little gold and silver unlike New Spain Profited from… Fishing, trapping, and trading

46 French King controlled New France
Grew slowly so King sent 1,000 farmers to colony Coureurs de bois- free from government control Lived in the woods

47 France and Native Americans
Did not attempt to conquer the Indians Indians taught the French trapping and survival skills (snowshoes and canoes) French missionaries taught Native Americans about Christianity

48 New Netherlands Hoped to profit from their discoveries in the Americas
Bought Manhattan from the Indians Built trading posts along the Hudson River Enlarged their colony by taking over New Sweden

49 “On the island of Manhattan, and in its environs, there may be four or five hundred men of different sects and nations: the Director General told me that there were men of eighteen different languages; they are scattered here and there on the river, above and below, as the beauty and convenience of the spot has invited each to settle.” Father Isaac Jogues, “Narratives of New Netherland,”

50 Dutch and Native Americans
Befriended the Iroquois people Helped fight against French and Hurons Tried to convert Native Americans into Christians Traded knives, copper kettles, muskets and gun powder for hunting and warfare Introduced alcohol which had a harsh life on Native Americans lives

51 Dutch Influences still here today
Ice Skating St. Nicks birthday Dutch master “boss” New Amsterdam sailed “yachts” Children munched on “Cookies” Rode through the snow on “Sleighs”

52 Colony a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation. Parent Nation Year Place Spain 1565 St. Augustine, Florida France 1608 Quebec City, Canada England 1607 Jamestown, Virginia

53 Map depicting Sir Francis Drake's 1586 attack on St. Augustine

54 A walled city founded by Champlain
Quebec City, French, 1608 A walled city founded by Champlain

55 Jamestown, Virginia Chesapeake Bay

56 Jamestown’s Population

57 European Settlement

58 Slavery in the colonies
Slaves were used in the colonies from the start (1619) 15 million slaves came from West Africa 80% of the slaves were used in the Caribbean or Brazil 17% of the slaves died on the ocean voyage Slaves were used to increase profits on colonial businesses Slaves were sold at auction On average, 2 ships left Africa full of slaves every day for 160 years


60 Slave Trade

61 PIG EARS This is a tool for studying culture and places
Each of the 7 PIGEARS letters stands for a different part of culture Helps us categorize culture and place

62 Political Who has power and control in a society?
King; governor; president How are decisions made? voting How are people organized? Land ownership

63 Intellectual How do we learn? What is in our brains?
Language Education What is in our brains? Technologies Ideas What are we capable of? Tools

64 Geography Topography Climate Soils Hilly/flat Rainy/Dry
Where do we live and what it is like? Topography Hilly/flat Climate Rainy/Dry Soils

65 Economic What the culture does for work to sustain life?
How are good and supplies distributed? Trade Natural resources Forests; mining; farming; water Currency or money used?

66 Artistic How do we express ourselves?
Dance, painting, music, etc. Items we produce by choice in our free time?

67 Religion How did we get here? Where are we going when we die?
Monotheistic beliefs Believe in one god (Christianity, Islam) Polytheistic Believe in many gods

68 Social How do we relate to one another? What are the traditions
Customs Routines Music; dress Gender roles in a society Peaceful or warlike

69 Notes When categorizing culture using PIGEARS, often cultural traits will belong to several PIGEARS attributes Farming Intellectual (irrigation) Geography (climate supports plants) Economic (grow crops for consumption / trade) Social (if a specific gender or age are the farmers)

70 West African Culture (PIGEARS)
Political People were organized in large tribes and clans who had control over large tracts of land. Elders and leaders generally governed the tribes, male dominant Intellectual History was recorded in both written and spoken (oral) forms. Children were taught in the home and were 'raised by the village'. Slingshots, irrigation, nets, metals, hands-on work

71 West African Culture Geography Economic Artistic
West Africa coastal regions, warm year around, equatorial, lowlands, less than 30” of rain annually, poor soils Economic Grazing of animals (goats, chickens, etc.), fishing, some farming Artistic Lively and colorful art, dance, music, beads, drumming. Wood carving and leather

72 West African Culture Religion Social
Monotheistic. Most of the tribes were Muslims, the religion of Islam. Allah=God, Mohammed was messiah, Jesus was a prophet, bible was Koran. There were few pockets of Christianity in the region too. Social Many languages were spoken based largely upon the tribe that a person was a part of. The people lived in permanent villages where the people would live off the land. Men had more power and control in the family. Elders were greatly respected regardless of gender. The concept of family was much broader than America's view today. Boys were “warriors”.

73 Colonies Grew After Jamestown (1607) and then Plymouth (1620) were successful, more colonies were created 8 of the 13 colonies were created as businesses Massachusetts was created for the Puritan religion They believed they were living “pure” as the bible intended Rhode Island was created for religious freedom Rhode Island broke away from Massachusetts because Massachusetts was to strict with their religion Pennsylvania and Maryland were created for political and religious freedoms

74 Colonial Comparisons Town Meetings where women could attend
Regions: (8x4) New england Middle southern Political Town Meetings where women could attend Assembly of elected white, male, property owners INTELECTUAL Mandatory public schools for everyone Private schools through the churches Tutors for the rich (5%), usually at the plantation GEOGRAPHY Poor soils, good harbors, cold winters, mild summers Good soils, great harbors, moderate winters, warm summers Great soils, marginal harbors, mild winters, hot summers ECONOMIC Manufacturing, lumber products, shipbuilding, merchants, whaling Trade, grain farms, seaports, and iron mills Plantations for cotton, rice, tobacco, and indigo ARTISTIC Writers and poets like Anne Bradstreet or William Bradford Metal works Benjamin Franklin Alexander Hamilton Architecture, theatre, music, and dancing Most Artistic RELIGIOUS State supported churches with taxes. Puritans Very Strict New religions could be formed and practiced; Quakers Prodestant Church was required. Taxes were payed to the Church of England. SOCIAL [Colonial Life Expectancy: Male, 45; Female, 38 (4:1 Male/Female Ratio)] Most equality (5% of slaves) Middle equality (15% of slaves) Least equality (80% of slaves)

75 New England Green color was French Pink and red was British
Hudson River and NYC were Dutch


77 Journals

78 Your Favorite Hobbies Record and describe the hobbies you enjoy the most Sports Crafts Activities What else would you like to learn to do?

79 Which College Major Of the 8 Social Science presented in class, which one would you be most interested in studying and doing for a job? Why? What would that job be like? Where would you work? What would you affect? Which one would you like the least

80 What’s Your Opinion Do you think the facts, opinions or advice we learn about History are the most important Why do you think that? Can these facts, opinions and advice always be trusted?

81 What’s Your Opinion Do you believe in the death penalty as a punishment for crimes? Why or why not Are there other solutions

82 Which Continent 4 U? The Americas and Europe were similar and different in 1492 If you lived back then, which continent would you have preferred to live on Why What would your favorite part of your life be Would you prefer the food choices or the natural landscape of the place you chose

83 Misrepresented History
Explain a time in your life when the whole story was not told about something that happened to you or a friend Did the whole story or truth ever come out How did you feel when your side of the story was not understood or cared about Does this happen a lot What could be done to make sure all sides of a story are understood

84 Hero or Villain Do you think Columbus was a hero or a villain?

85 Histories Lessons What are the biggest three lessons from the past that Americans should know about to make America better in the future What were some of Americas mistakes in the past What were some things that America should make sure we never do again why

86 Trade Routes You have been reading and mapping European trade routes
Why was Europe trading and travelling so much Do you think this was a good idea why

87 Holy Lands The Mid-east was the birthplace and center of Judaism, Christianity and Islam All of these religions want to worship in their most holy places Who do you think deserves to have control of the holy lands today why Are there other solutions

88 Early Explorers We know the Vikings came to North America and Columbus 500 years later Do you think they were the only people to reach North America for those 500 years Were the Vikings the first Why do you think that Consider the map of the world What about Japan, China or Korea

89 Agenda Use On a scale of 1-10 how would you rate how well you use your agenda to keep track of your day 1 means you need to improve 10 means your doing great What could you do to improve How would you do that

90 Interesting Vocabulary Words
Which 2 vocabulary words are the most interesting new words to you why

91 Familiar Vocabulary Words
Which of the vocabulary words did you already know Where did you hear them used before In what context Use these words in new complete sentences in your reflection Are you ready for Friday’s quiz?

92 PROP Journal Of the four parts to PROP, which part do you think is most important to determine if a source of information is credible and trustworthy or not Primary or secondary Reason to lie Other evidence Public or private

93 Columbian Exchange America, Europe and Africa changed forever because of what Columbus started Which change do you think was the most important or had the biggest impact why What crop or food item had the biggest impact in your opinion

94 Pocahontas Pocahontas was kidnapped by the British and used as ransom
She was a Powhatan princess with a lot of talent If you could go back in time what would you want to learn from Pocahontas What would you suggest to her What advice would you have What would you do differently in Jamestown if you were British What if you were a Powhatan If you went to Jamestown in 1607 would you want to be English or Powhatan? why

95 2nd Jamestown Ship More than 90% of Jamestown settlers died
However England sent over a second ship Why What were the reasons for a second ship do you think Would you have gone on the second ship Who do you think was on the second ship What kind of people, tools or items would you have brought from England?

96 Greed Slavery was a product of greed and racism (this is my opinion)
What are your opinions concerning the slave trade Could the colonies have started differently How The colonies were created as businesses to make money Was that right, could it have been different Would that have changed our lives today

97 Weekend What was the favorite part of your weekend
Huh, tell me – what was it?’ Why Are you still stoked from it Do you wanna do what was super fun again another weekend Can you

98 Which Colony? If you had to choose a colony from your map to live in, which one would you choose Why What would be the best things about living there What would you do for work For fun?

99 West Africa or Colonies
If you lived in 1750 would you prefer to live in the colonies in the Americas or in West Africa where Kunta Kinte was living? Why What would you enjoy about living there What would you like most What would you like the least

100 West African Culture West Africa had many unique aspects to it (Political; Intellectual; Geography; Economic; Artistic; Religion; Social) What part of West African culture did you find the most interesting Why In what ways

101 How was that cultural aspect different than the cultures in other places
Europe America American Indians

102 Your Colony You are researching a colony
What aspect of your colonies PIGEARS do you find the most interesting? Why

103 A day in your colony If you were a kid in your colony, what would be a typical day be like? School Food Culture; toys Your home life Your work What would your parents be like

104 Colony Brochure What has been your favorite part of your brochure
Why What part was the easiest to create What part was the hardest

105 Colony Brochure What do you think about this project Do you like it
Should I change it How and why Is the brochure too much work Is it too simple or too hard?

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