2This is a map similar to the on found on page 140 of our textbook This is a map similar to the on found on page 140 of our textbook. The only difference is the North European Plain is called the North Lowland and this map does not include Russia.Also the “dotted area in Spain and Portugal is part of the Central Uplands, not Western Highlands.
6Section 2: Climate and Vegetation Chapter 6Europe and Russia:Physical Geography
7A Wide Range of Temperatures Temperatures throughout Europe vary greatly from Spain to RussiaClimate affects the culture of a place and contributes to why cultures are different throughout Europe.For Example:Barcelona, Spain (on the Mediterranean Sea) has hot and dry summers and the winters are mild and rainy.Irkutsk, Russia (part of Siberia) has short summers and long very cold winters (snow covers the ground for 6 months) each year, and temperatures drop to 40 degrees below zero.
8A Wide Range of Temperatures Oceans affect ClimateAreas near an ocean or sea have a fairly mild weather year roundAreas that are far from the ocean often have extreme weatherThe North Atlantic CurrentThe Gulf Stream turns into the North Atlantic CurrentIt brings warm water from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Europe
9A Wide Range of Temperatures With the wind, it brings mild weather to must of Northwestern Europe. (London is farther North than any US City, but has a mild weather)Snow and ice cover Norway's northern section, it western coast is free of ice and snow all year (goof for fishing).Oceans affect climate in other waysAs winds blow over oceans, they pick up moisture and drop it over land in the form of rain.Western Europe has fairly wet climate because of this idea.Mountains affect rainfallAreas on the western side of mountains in Europe receive heavy rainfall. As winds rise over the mountains they release their moisture and go dry. It causes a rain shadow on the other side.Rain Shadow: an area on the dry sheltered side of a mountain that receives little rainfall.
10Major Climate Zones Marine West Coast Climate Mediterranean Climate Found in Northwestern EuropeMild all year, but areas are rainy through all seasons (London)Mediterranean ClimateArea surrounding the Mediterranean SeaSummers are hot and dry, winters are mild and rainyHumid Continental ClimateAreas inland had hot summers and long and cold winters. They can also have just one extreme (Irkutsk, Russia (Cold))
11Vegetation of Europe and Russia The natural vegetation is as varied as the climate.Forests and Grasslands of EuropeThe natural vegetation of Europe is mostly forestsSome have been cleared for farming and factories, but there are still large coniferous forests in the north.Central and southern parts of N. European Plain are covered by prairies (a large grassland)Today, they have been cleared and are used for farming
12Vegetation of Europe and Russia The Russian Tundra, Forests, and GrasslandsThree vegetation zonesTundraTundra: treeless plain where mosses and grasses growPermafrost: permanently frozen soilIf it thaws, growth spurts take place, extends across SiberiaForestsTaiga: immense expanse of trees in Russia4 million square miles, largest forest in world. Goes across SiberiaGrasslandsSteppes: Russian grasslandLike our Great Plains, good for farming