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Text Book page # 482 - 491 CLIMATE REGIONS OF THE WORLD.

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Presentation on theme: "Text Book page # 482 - 491 CLIMATE REGIONS OF THE WORLD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Text Book page # 482 - 491 CLIMATE REGIONS OF THE WORLD

2 What factors are used to classify climates? What are the six main climate regions? THE BIG IDEA

3 Scientists classify climates according to two major factors:  Temperature  Precipitation CLIMATE REGIONS

4 There are six main climate regions:  Tropical rainy  Dry  Temperate marine  Temperate continental  Polar  Highlands CLIMATE REGIONS


6 The tropics have two types of rainy climates:  Tropical wet  Tropical wet-and-dry TROPICAL RAINY CLIMATES

7  Are found in low-lying lands near the equator  Many days are rainy, often with afternoon thunderstorms  Thunderstorms triggered by mid-day heating  In many areas with a tropical-wet climate the trade winds bring moisture from the oceans TROPICAL WET CLIMATES

8  With year round heat and heavy rainfall, vegetation grows lush and green  Dense rain forests grow in these climates  In the United States, only the windward sides of Hawaiian islands have a tropical wet climate TROPICAL WET CLIMATES

9  Areas that have tropical wet-and-dry climates receive slightly less rain than tropical climates  Have distinct dry and rainy seasons  Instead of rainforests, tropical grasslands called savannas grow  In the United States only the southern tip of Florida has a tropical wet-and-dry climate TROPICAL WET-AND-DRY CLIMATES

10  A climate is dry if the amount of precipitation that falls is less than the amount of water that could potentially evaporate  It does NOT mean that it doesn’t ever rain… DRY CLIMATES

11 Dry climates include arid and semiarid climates DRY CLIMATES

12  Dry regions often lie inland  Far from the oceans that are the source of humid air masses DRY CLIMATES

13  Also known as deserts  On average, arid regions receive less than 25 cm of rain per year  Only specializes plants and animals can survive  Much of California’s southeast, including Death Valley and the Mojave Desert, has an arid climate ARID CLIMATES

14  Semiarid regions are usually located on the edges of deserts  These semiarid area are called steppes  May also be called a prairie or a grassland  The Great Plains are the major steppe region of the United States  Portions of southeastern California are considered semiarid SEMIARID CLIMATES

15 There are three types of temperate marine climates:  Marine west coast  Mediterranean  Humid subtropical TEMPERATE MARINE CLIMATES

16  Because of the moderating influence of oceans, all three temperate marine climates are humid and have mild winters TEMPERATE MARINE CLIMATES

17  The coolest temperate marine climates are found on the west coasts of continents north of 40 degrees north latitude and south of 40 degrees south latitude  Humid ocean air brings mild, rainy winters  Summer precipitation can greatly vary MARINE WEST COAST

18  In North America, the marine west coast climate extends from northern California to southern Alaska  Because of heavy precipitation, think forests of tall trees grow in this region  One of the major industries of this region is harvesting and processing wood for lumber, paper, and furniture MARINE WEST COAST

19  A coastal climate that is drier and warmer than west coast marine is known as Mediterranean  Most areas with this climate are found around the Mediterranean Sea  In the United States, much of coastal California has a Mediterranean climate  Mild, with two seasons  Winter – marine air masses bring cool, rainy weather  Summer – somewhat warmer, with little rain MEDITERRANEAN

20  Mediterranean climates have two main vegetation types:  Chaparral (dense shrubs and small tress)  Grasses with a few large trees MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATES

21  The warmest temperate marine climates are along the edges of the tropics  Humid subtropical climates are wet and warm  Not as constantly hot as the tropics  The southeastern United States has a humid subtropical climate  Summers are hot, with more rainfall than winters  Winters are cool to mild, with more rain than snow HUMID SUBTROPICAL

22  Are not influences very much by oceans  Have extremes of temperature TEMPERATE CONTINENTAL CLIMATES

23 Temperate continental climates are only found on continents in the Northern Hemisphere Include:  Continental  Subartic TEMPERATE CONTINENTAL CLIMATES

24  Shifting tropical and polar air masses bring constantly changing weather to humid continental climates  Winter – continental polar air masses move south, bringing bitterly cold weather  Summer – tropical air masses move north, bringing heat and humidity  The northeastern region of the United States, as well as the Midwest, have humid continental climates HUMID CONTINENTAL

25  Subarctic climates lie north of the humid continental climates  Summers in the subarctic are short and cool  Winters are long and bitterly cold SUBARCTIC CLIMATE

26 The polar climate is the coldest climate region, and includes the ice cap and tundra climates. POLAR CLIMATES

27  Ice cap and tundra climates are found only in the far north and south, near the North and South poles  Most polar climates are relatively dry  Cold air holds little moisture POLAR CLIMATES

28  Found mainly on Greenland and Antarctica  Average temperatures always at or below freezing  The land in this region is always covered with ice and snow  Intense cold makes the air dry  Lichens and a few low plants may grow on the rocks ICE CAP CLIMATE

29  Stretches across northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia  Short, cool summers  Bitter, cold winters  Some layers of the tundra are always frozen  Permanently frozen soil is called permafrost  Water cannot drain away, so the soil is wet and boggy in summer TUNDRA CLIMATE

30  It is too cold in the tundra for trees to grow  During the short summers the tundra is filled with life  Mosquitos and other insects  Mosses, grasses, lichens  Caribou  birds TUNDRA CLIMATE

31 Temperature falls as altitude increases, so highland regions are colder than the regions that surround them HIGHLANDS

32  Increasing altitude produces climate changes you would expect with increasing latitude  Precipitation also increase as air masses carrying moisture pass over highland area  Climate on the lower slopes of a mountain range is like that of the surrounding countryside HIGHLANDS

33  As you go higher up the mountains, temperature becomes lower and precipitation increases  Climate higher on the mountain is like that of the subarctic  Above a certain elevation, called the tree line, temperatures are too low for trees to grow  Climate above the tree line is like that of the tundra  Only low plants, mosses, and lichens can grow there HIGHLANDS

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