2 Climate vs. Weather Weather changes easily…day by day Climate is different.It is an average of the year to year temperature and precipitation in an area.Climate changes result in a change of climate all over the world.
3 Factors that Influence Temperature Latitude: Climates hear the equator are warm….farther from the equator are coldAltitude: The higher elevation it has, the colder it isOcean Currents: Warm currents can warm the air above them, causing the temperature to be warm in a certain area that would normally be cold.
4 Zones of LatitudeTropical Zones: Near equator, direct sunlight year round, warm climatePolar Zones: Near the poles, never has direct sunlight, cold climateTemperate Zones: Between tropical and polar. In summer, they have direct sunlight---warm….In winter, sun hits at an angle, so they are cold.
5 Climate types Marine Climates: Located near oceansHave little changes in temp…mild summers, cool wintersHappens because water doesn’t change temperature easilyContinental Climates: Extreme Temperature changes with very cold winters and warm to hot summers.Ocean currents don’t affect these climates
6 Factors the Influence Precipitation Prevailing Winds: Carry air masses that change humidity and temperatureMountain Ranges: Cause air masses to rise and cool as they travel over high landscapeWindward: Side of the mountain that the wind hitsLeeward: Side of the mountain opposite the windSeasonal winds: Bring changes as the seasons change
7 Changing of the Seasons Caused by the tilt of the earth on it’s axis.As the earth rotates, the sun hits it at various angles.This causes the change of the seasons…Turn to page 479 in your book……
9 Classification of Climates 2 factorsWeatherTemperature6 Regions:Tropical RainyDryTemperate MarineTemperate ContinentalPolarHighlands
10 Tropical Rainy 2 types Tropical Wet: Low lying areas near the equator Most days have rain (many days out of the year)Rain Forest: Happen in tropical wet climates and have rainfall year round.Tropical Wet and Dry: Areas near the equator that have distinct dry and rainy seasonsSavannas: Tropical grasslands that have scattered clumps of trees that can survive the dry season.
11 Dry2 TypesArid: Less than 25 cm of rain per year with extreme temperaturesDeserts: Arid regions that get less than 25 cm of rain a year. Can be hot and sandy, or cold and rocky.Semiarid: Found at the edges of deserts. They are dry, but have enough rainfall to support small plant life.Steppe: Area that is dry, but gets enough rainfall for short grasses and low bushes to grow.
12 Temperate Marine Climates Found near oceansAll types have humid, mild wintersMarine West Coast: Coolest, mild rainy winters, summer precipitation varies (Found on west coast of US). Allows for thick forests and tall trees.Mediterranean: Drier and warmer (S. Coast of California and Mediterranean sea). Mild temperatures, winter---rainy, summer---little rainHumid Subtropical: Found in the edges along the tropical/temperate zone. Climates are wet and warn, but not constantly hot. Found in the southern tips of the US.
13 Temperate Continental Climates Only on Continents in N. HemisphereHumid Contental: Tropical and polar air masses shift, changing temperature and precipitation constantly. In winter, cold weather moves in from the polar, and in summer, tropical bring heat and humidity. These areas receive moderate rain in the summer, and small amounts in the winter.Subarctic: North of the humid continental. Has short, cool summers, and Long very cold winters.
14 Polar Climates Coldest climate region Ice Cap: Found on greenland and AntarticaAvg. temps at or below freezingCovered with ice and snow year roundVery dry air---due to iceTundra: Short, cool summers….Long Cold wintersPermafrost: Permanently frozen tundra soil
15 Highlands Areas of high elevation within other regions High elevation makes them colder than the areas around themUsually has low temperatures and more precip than areas around them.Will have a tree line where areas at a certain elevation are too cold for trees to grow.