2 Climate vs. WeatherWeather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and placeClimate is the average, year after year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds and clouds in an area
3 What factors determine the climate of a region? Two factors determine climate:TemperaturePrecipitationClimate region – is a large area with similar climate conditions throughout
5 Factors affecting Temperature LatitudeFarther from the equator, the cooler the climateTropical zone 23.5 degrees North and South of the equatorTemperate zone degrees North and South of the equatorPolar zone: degrees
6 Factors affecting temperature Altitude:high mountains will have cool climates independent of where the latitude isex. Mt Kilimanjaro in Africa has snow on its top even though it is 3 degrees from the equator.
7 Factors affecting Temperature Distance from large bodies of waterCoastal areas have a marine climate (water heats up more slowly than land; it also cools down more slowly) warm winters, cool summersBecause of winds from the ocean, temperature extremes are not common.
8 Factors affecting Temperature Continental climates - areas too far inland to be warmed or cooled by the oceans.Interior areas of the US, Canada, Russiahave a more extreme climate, hot summers, bitterly cold winters
9 Factors affecting temperature Ocean Currents – streams of water within the oceans that move in regular patterns.“Warm” water currents originate from the Equatorial regions and move North or Southex. Gulf Stream ( best known water current)“Cold’ water current originate in the Polar regions and move south making climates coolerex. California current
11 Factors affecting Precipitation Prevailing WindsAir masses are moved by the prevailing winds. Air masses may be hot or cool, wet or dry.Ex. Air masses near the equator are hot and humid, produce lots of rainfall and have thick vegetationEx. Winds blowing over land (trade winds in Africa), carry little moisture and produce deserts
12 Factors affecting Precipitation Mountain RangesThe presence of a mountain range will act to force air to move up the mountain side,On the windward side the air is cooled and drops its moisture as rain or snowon the leeward side the air is dryer producing desert like environments.
14 Microclimates Sometimes a small area (ex wooded park) has a climate all its own because the moisture from transpiration from trees in the park keeps it cooler and more humid than the surrounding city environment.This is called a microclimate
15 The Seasons Affected by the tilt of the earth’s axis (23.5) Winter and summer are determined by the tilt towards (summer) or away (winter) of each hemisphere