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Major Civil War Battles

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Presentation on theme: "Major Civil War Battles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Civil War Battles
First Bull Run Gettysburg Atlanta Appomattox Antietam Vicksburg Things To Picture Date Important People Landmarks The significance in the overall war Gettysburg

2 Ch 11 The Civil War Gettysburg

3 Sec 1 Choosing Sides General Winfield Scott asked Robert E. Lee to command the Union Army However, Lee was from Virginia, so he chose to support and lead the confederacy

4 Advantages and Disadvantages
7 of the 8 military colleges in the nation were in the south ¾ of the U.S. Navy and officers were in the North All but one of the navy’s shipyards were under Union control

5 Advantages and Disadvantages
North South - 2x the population -1/3 of the − south population is enslaved - Industry/Economy + - Food supplies - Extensive Railroads + − - Only 1 rail line - National Treasury - Better military leaders +

6 Congress passed the Legal Tender Act – Feb
Congress passed the Legal Tender Act – Feb. 1862, to allow the government to issue a national currency and start to print colored money called greenbacks

7 The Union navy blockaded southern ports and cut off the south’s economy of trade

8 In 1862 Congress required states to use conscription, or the draft
This caused riots in many states

9 Lincoln suspended writs of habeas corpus – a person’s right not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial He did so to silence anti-war critics in the North especially in border states

10 Weak Southern Government
The Confederate Constitution limited Jefferson Davis’ powers much like the Articles of Confederation

11 First Modern War New cone shaped bullets were used

12 Instead of standing in line troops started to use trenches and barricades to defend themselves

13 War Strategies Jefferson Davis wanted the war to be a Defensive war of attrition

14 The Union plan was called the Anaconda Plan – this was proposed by Winfield Scott

15 Sec 2 The Early Stages In the first few months of the war Lincoln was under pressure to attack General PGT Beauregard and the confederates quickly

16 The place would be south of Washington, near Manassas Junction

17 Confederate reinforcements were led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

18 The Naval War Blockade Runners – smaller faster ships used to smuggle goods, became effective against the blockade

19 Union ships led by David G
Union ships led by David G. Farragut, captured New Orleans control of the Mississippi River 1862

20 The War in the West In Feb. 1862, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had victories at Forts Henry and Donelson

21 The Union army won the Battle of Shiloh even after a surprise attack from the Confederates but twenty thousand troops were killed

22 War in the East George B McClellan took over the Union army after McDowell’s defeat at the First Bull Run The Union wanted to capture Richmond

23 Lee then attacked the Union forces defending Washington and that became the second Battle of Bull Run

24 Confederates troops won and were just 20 miles from Washington
McClellan and his troops took position along Antietam Creek

25 The Antietam victory was huge for the Union and devastating for the south
This convinced Lincoln it was time to end slavery in the South

26 On Sept 1862, Lincoln announced he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Slaves would be free as of Jan 1, 1863 in the “states in rebellion”

27 Sec 3 Life During the War As the southern economy collapsed during the civil war, the north experienced a great time of growth and production African Americans were allowed to enlist in the Union army after the Emancipation proclamation

28 The 54th Massachusetts was the first black regiment in the north and they were key in the battle of Fort Wagner

29 Medical Care Clara Barton was famous for her devotion and care of soldiers in the civil war Florence Nightingale – a British nurse was a huge influence on American women who wanted to go into nursing

30 Sec 4 The Turning Point The Union army successfully completed their strategy of cutting the south into two with the battle of Vicksburg Grant put the city under siege and cut off its food supplies until confederate troops surrendered on July 4, 1863

31 Gettysburg Lincoln fired McClellan because he let Lee escape at Antietam He gave command to Ambrose Burnside

32 Burnside attacked Lee at Fredericksburg (Chancellorsville) and the union army suffered enormous casualties

33 Burnside was then replaced with Joseph Hooker
Lee defeated Hooker and then attacked Pennsylvania Hooker was replaced with Gen. George Meade

34 Meade and Lee would then meet up at Gettysburg
Lee ordered Gen. George Pickett to charge 15,000 confederates at the Union

35 The Confederacy lost 28,000 men, 1/3 of Lees’ army, the Union lost 23,000

36 President Lincoln came to Gettysburg in November 1863 to dedicate the battlefield as a cemetery and delivered the Gettysburg Address

37 Sec 5 The War Ends On Sept 1, Sherman’s troops occupied the city of Atlanta and burned down 1/3 of the city

38 Nov 15, 1864, Sherman started his March to the Sea
He destroyed everything in his path until they reached the coast and seized Savannah on Dec. 21, 1864

39 Lincoln won re-election in 1864 against his old General, McClellan
The 13th Amendment – banned slavery in the U.S. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865

40 April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot and killed Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre
The civil war results… The Union was preserved and strengthened the power of federal government over the states Slavery was ended The South’s society and economy were devastated

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