2Warm Up Rise of Dictators Define collectivization:What is the book called that Hitler wrote?What is the “night of long knives”?What title did Hitler take?Who became the dictator in Japan?Who became the dictator of Spain?What did he do to his own cities?
3Road to War Aggressive nations Japan invades Manchuria in 1931 The League of Nations does nothingJapan then invades ChinaMillions of Chinese will die, Rape of NanjingItaly in 1935 invades EthiopiaThe Ethiopian leader appealed to the League of Nations, which once again did nothingItaly also takes over Albania
8Hitler began to ignore and violate the terms of the Treaty of Versailles Once in power, Hitler began to secretly rebuild the Germany armyA few years later he sent troops into the Rhineland, Germany territory that bordered FranceThe Treaty of Versailles made this area a demilitarized zoneThe French and British complained, but took no actionRealizing that the other Europeans powers wouldn’t risk war to stop him, Hitler set his plans for an empire into motionLebensraum = living space for the German people
10Germany begins to acquire territory First step in Hitler’s plan was to annex AustriaGerman troops marched into Austria in 1938 without opposition and took over AustriaCalled the AnschlussNext Hitler turned to Czechoslovakia, demanding the Sudetenland, a region with a large German populationThe French and British met with Hitler at the Munich Conference in 1938 to decide the fate of the SudetenlandHitler demanded it or else warFrance and Britain told Czechoslovakia to give Germany the Sudetenland - appeasement
11Hitler got what he wanted without any fighting and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returned home claiming to have achieved “peace in our time”Six months later Hitler violates the Munich agreement and takes over the rest of CzechoslovakiaFrance and Great Britain realized that Hitler would never be satisfied and decided they would have to make a standHitler next began demanding Poland or elseFrance and Great Britain stated they would fight to protect Poland
12New alliances Rome-Berlin Axis = between Italy and Germany Anti-Comintern Pact = between Germany and Japan to oppose the spread of communismNazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact = between Germany and the Soviet UnionStalin first tried to make an alliance with the French and British, but they refusedHitler made this agreement because he was trying to prevent a two front warHad every intention of invading Russia, wanted the land for the German people and to turn the Soviets into slaves or kill them, especially the communistsStalin knew Hitler would eventually betray the pact and invade, needed time to rebuild the Soviet army
13World War II Begins German Invasion of Poland – Sept. 1, 1939 Britain and France declare war on Sept. 3The Germans use blitzkrieg against the Poles who are still using horsesThe Soviet Union invades Poland from the other sideHitler and Stalin had agreed to divide PolandIt takes only three weeks to crush Polish resistancePoles = 60,000 soldiers dead, 25,000 civilians dead, and 900,000 troops capturedGermans lose 14,000 soldiers“annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe” begins
14Blitzkrieg “lightning war” Emphasized speed – it is quick and devastatingThe Luftwaffe (German air force) leads the way, bombing and damaging defensesThe planes are followed by fast-moving tanks and artillery, then soldiers who finished off any resistanceThe two opposing sidesAxis Powers = Italy, Japan, and GermanyAllied Powers = France and Great Britain (will be joined later by other nations)
15Blitzkriegdescribe a military doctrine of an all-mechanized force concentrating its attack on a small section of the enemy front then, once the latter is pierced, proceed without regard to its flank.
18France feels safe behind the Maginot Line, a concrete fortress built along the French-German border The best soldiers are stationed there, concentrating on defenseBelgium refuses to allow British and French troops into the country to set up defensesAfraid to upset or provoke HitlerHitler’s assault on France begins on May 10, 1940 when he launches three separate attacksInvades the Netherlands and Belgium – two countries that lay in between France and Germany
21After the ruthless bombing of Rotterdam, the Netherlands surrenders on May 14 with their queen escaping to BritainThe Allies come too late to save Belgium, which surrenders on May 28King Albert stays and is taken captive and is deposed by his people at the end of the warAt the same time Nazi forces blitzkrieg at the Ardennes Woods, where the French least expect itIt is a dense forest region along the border between France and BelgiumThe French believe it impossible for an army to get throughThe Germans get through in a couple of days and face inexperienced French troops
25Evacuation at Dunkirk In five days the road to Paris is open Paris declares itself an open city to avoid being bombedCaptured on June 14th as Nazis make a victorious march through the Arc de TriumphItaly invades France on June 10th and declares war on Britain as wellFrench lose 8 soldiers to Italy’s 5,000Evacuation at DunkirkGerman tanks and troops have trapped hundreds of thousands of Allied troops who retreated to the coastal city of DunkirkAlmost the entire British army is in France
26Hitler halts the march into France because of losses, this gives the Allies time to get away Between May 26th and June 4th, 800 boats from Britain, ranging from warships to fishing boats, evacuate 340,000 soldiers from France, including over 100,000 French soldiersSoldiers run into the water and swim to ships while Allied airplanes hold off the Luftwaffe235 ships sunk and 68,000 soldiers killedLeave all weapons and tanks behind
27Fall of France France surrenders on June 21st Harsh terms, Hitler wants to humiliate France, sign a peace treaty at the Versailles palaceNorth France given to Germany and southeastern France goes to ItalyThe rest of southern France gets to remain independent, but must be loyal to Germany and cooperate with HitlerCalled Vichy FranceArmy reduced to 100,000 men and no more navyFrench ships are to go to Germany
28Britain is now all alone The British steal whatever French boats they can or sink them from falling into Nazi handsMust pay for war and German occupation – way more money than Germany had to pay after WWISome French leaders, including General Charles de Gaulle, escape to BritainThey will organize French resistance and work with the Allied powersBritain is now all alone“The Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.”- Winston Churchill