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WORLD WAR II WORLD WAR II BEGINS. Warm Up Rise of Dictators 1.Define collectivization: 2.What is the book called that Hitler wrote? 3.What is the “night.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II WORLD WAR II BEGINS. Warm Up Rise of Dictators 1.Define collectivization: 2.What is the book called that Hitler wrote? 3.What is the “night."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II WORLD WAR II BEGINS

2 Warm Up Rise of Dictators 1.Define collectivization: 2.What is the book called that Hitler wrote? 3.What is the “night of long knives”? 4.What title did Hitler take? 5.Who became the dictator in Japan? 6.Who became the dictator of Spain? 7.What did he do to his own cities?

3 Road to War Aggressive nations – Japan invades Manchuria in 1931 The League of Nations does nothing – Japan then invades China Millions of Chinese will die, Rape of Nanjing – Italy in 1935 invades Ethiopia The Ethiopian leader appealed to the League of Nations, which once again did nothing – Italy also takes over Albania

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8 Hitler began to ignore and violate the terms of the Treaty of Versailles – Once in power, Hitler began to secretly rebuild the Germany army – A few years later he sent troops into the Rhineland, Germany territory that bordered France The Treaty of Versailles made this area a demilitarized zone The French and British complained, but took no action – Realizing that the other Europeans powers wouldn’t risk war to stop him, Hitler set his plans for an empire into motion Lebensraum = living space for the German people

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10 Germany begins to acquire territory – First step in Hitler’s plan was to annex Austria German troops marched into Austria in 1938 without opposition and took over Austria Called the Anschluss – Next Hitler turned to Czechoslovakia, demanding the Sudetenland, a region with a large German population The French and British met with Hitler at the Munich Conference in 1938 to decide the fate of the Sudetenland Hitler demanded it or else war France and Britain told Czechoslovakia to give Germany the Sudetenland - appeasement

11 Hitler got what he wanted without any fighting and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returned home claiming to have achieved “peace in our time” – Six months later Hitler violates the Munich agreement and takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia – France and Great Britain realized that Hitler would never be satisfied and decided they would have to make a stand Hitler next began demanding Poland or else France and Great Britain stated they would fight to protect Poland

12 New alliances – Rome-Berlin Axis = between Italy and Germany – Anti-Comintern Pact = between Germany and Japan to oppose the spread of communism – Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact = between Germany and the Soviet Union Stalin first tried to make an alliance with the French and British, but they refused Hitler made this agreement because he was trying to prevent a two front war – Had every intention of invading Russia, wanted the land for the German people and to turn the Soviets into slaves or kill them, especially the communists Stalin knew Hitler would eventually betray the pact and invade, needed time to rebuild the Soviet army

13 World War II Begins German Invasion of Poland – Sept. 1, 1939 – Britain and France declare war on Sept. 3 – The Germans use blitzkrieg against the Poles who are still using horses – The Soviet Union invades Poland from the other side Hitler and Stalin had agreed to divide Poland – It takes only three weeks to crush Polish resistance Poles = 60,000 soldiers dead, 25,000 civilians dead, and 900,000 troops captured Germans lose 14,000 soldiers – “annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe” begins

14 Blitzkrieg “lightning war” – Emphasized speed – it is quick and devastating – The Luftwaffe (German air force) leads the way, bombing and damaging defenses – The planes are followed by fast-moving tanks and artillery, then soldiers who finished off any resistance The two opposing sides – Axis Powers = Italy, Japan, and Germany – Allied Powers = France and Great Britain (will be joined later by other nations)

15 Blitzkrieg describe a military doctrine of an all- mechanized force concentrating its attack on a small section of the enemy front then, once the latter is pierced, proceed without regard to its flank.military doctrine

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18 France feels safe behind the Maginot Line, a concrete fortress built along the French-German border – The best soldiers are stationed there, concentrating on defense Belgium refuses to allow British and French troops into the country to set up defenses – Afraid to upset or provoke Hitler Hitler’s assault on France begins on May 10, 1940 when he launches three separate attacks – Invades the Netherlands and Belgium – two countries that lay in between France and Germany

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21 After the ruthless bombing of Rotterdam, the Netherlands surrenders on May 14 with their queen escaping to Britain The Allies come too late to save Belgium, which surrenders on May 28 – King Albert stays and is taken captive and is deposed by his people at the end of the war – At the same time Nazi forces blitzkrieg at the Ardennes Woods, where the French least expect it It is a dense forest region along the border between France and Belgium The French believe it impossible for an army to get through The Germans get through in a couple of days and face inexperienced French troops

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23 Band of Brothers Chapter 6 10min-14min Ardennes Forest

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25 – In five days the road to Paris is open Paris declares itself an open city to avoid being bombed Captured on June 14 th as Nazis make a victorious march through the Arc de Triumph – Italy invades France on June 10 th and declares war on Britain as well French lose 8 soldiers to Italy’s 5,000 Evacuation at Dunkirk – German tanks and troops have trapped hundreds of thousands of Allied troops who retreated to the coastal city of Dunkirk Almost the entire British army is in France

26 – Hitler halts the march into France because of losses, this gives the Allies time to get away – Between May 26 th and June 4 th, 800 boats from Britain, ranging from warships to fishing boats, evacuate 340,000 soldiers from France, including over 100,000 French soldiers Soldiers run into the water and swim to ships while Allied airplanes hold off the Luftwaffe – 235 ships sunk and 68,000 soldiers killed Leave all weapons and tanks behind

27 Fall of France France surrenders on June 21 st Harsh terms, Hitler wants to humiliate France, sign a peace treaty at the Versailles palace – North France given to Germany and southeastern France goes to Italy – The rest of southern France gets to remain independent, but must be loyal to Germany and cooperate with Hitler Called Vichy France – Army reduced to 100,000 men and no more navy French ships are to go to Germany

28 The British steal whatever French boats they can or sink them from falling into Nazi hands – Must pay for war and German occupation – way more money than Germany had to pay after WWI Some French leaders, including General Charles de Gaulle, escape to Britain – They will organize French resistance and work with the Allied powers Britain is now all alone – “The Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.” - Winston Churchill

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