2Settling the West Mining Brought the 1st settlers to the west. Comstock Load- one of the largest silver ore mines found in Six mile canyon, NV.Silver was exhausted and the people left- this is called the Boom and Bust Economy Ghost towns created
4Ranching popular after Civil War Open Range- government owned property where ranchers could let cattle grazeCivil war had depleted a lot of the cattle in the U.S. which made prices of meat high.Rail Roads Reached the Great Plains which made shipment on meat back east Easy.The Range would soon close because of ranchers putting up barbed wireMavericks- were cattle that were found with no symbols to identify the owners.
5Buffalo Soldiers A lot of cowboys in the west were African American. buffalo soldiers- name given to African American soldiers who fought against natives on the frontier.
7Reason for Settlers settled the West in the late 1800’s. Rail Road sold land cheap and gave settlers credit.Homestead act of settlers could claim 160 acres of public land and would receive title if lived there for 5 years. (only paid 10 registration fee)But life was hard on frontierHow was it hard?
8Natives AmericansNatives were nomads-traveled place to place following the buffaloNatives and settlers started clashingIndian Peace Commission -created two reservation on plains.1 for Sioux,1 for Southern PlainsBuffalo population on a decline
9Clashes with Natives Battle of Little Big Horn George Custer and the 7th Calvary surrounds Lakota and Cheyenne. All the 7th Calvary killed by nativesSitting Bull was one of the main leader. After battle he headed for Canada.
10Natives Rounded up Tragedy at Wounded Knee Natives are doing the Ghost Dance -ritual that native do hoping ancestor will come back and bring buffalo and take white man away.Sitting Bull was killed after returning from Canada. Blamed for natives not stopping the Ghost DanceTroops disarming natives at wounded knee creek a shot was fired and troops killed 200 Lakota women, men, and children
12Assimilation Allotted 160 acres to natives head of household Assimilation-absorb a group into a larger group. This is the policy of U.S. towards nativesDawes ActAllotted 160 acres to natives head of householdLand left over would be sold individual settlersNatives lost land over time.
14Industry rises Industrialization occurs because of 1. Large Work Force, Natural Resources (water coal, cooper, iron), and Free Enterprises2. Workforce tripledLarge Families and Immigration 20 million arrive mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe.3. Laissez faire- no governmental interference with the business or market (free Market)
154. New Inventions Alexander Gram bell - telephone (1876), Thomas Edison - phonograph, light bulb, and electric generator, motion picture improved,1st refrigerated rail car (Gustavus Franklin Swift)1st Transcontinental cable across the Atlantic. U.S. and Europe had instant contact (Cyrus fields)
16Rail RoadRailroad increased 35,000 miles in 1865 to 200,000 miles of track in 1900.Pacific Railroad Act- provided for the construction of a transcontinental R.R. Land on right away given to R.R. (incentive)Transcontinental R.r. –connected the east with the west.Union Pacific started in Omaha NebraskaCentral Pacific started in CaliforniaThey met in Ogden, Utah
17R.R. Cont. Chinese workers used in the construction R.R. increased business by increasing available market.Country spilt in to 4 time zonesRobber Barons- railroad entrepreneurs who swindled investors and taxpayers, bribed elected officials used insider trading to make fortunes. Ex. Jay Gould –used insider trading to make millions
18Big BusinessAndrew Carnegie- Rags to riches. Worked way up in R.R. industry. Got money from investing in R.R. Met Henry Bessemer-who had invented the Bessemer Converter- produced high quality steel at a low price.
19IntegrationVertical integration – a company buys out businesses on which it depends for its operation. Carnegie did this.Horizontal Integration- combining of business that do the same type or work under one cooperation.Standard Oil company under John D. Rockefeller owned 90% of the oil refining by 1880 creating a monopoly.Monopoly- is when a company owns almost all the market in something.Trust- is where one person manage several companies. (standard oil 1st one)
20WorkersWorkers did specific task never seeing end product. Since of accomplishment goneLong Hours, Unhealthy working conditionWages were cut (but with deflation actually people were still making more than they were) but people saw getting paid less for the same job.2 types of Industrial workCraft worker- had special skill or training ex. Machinist, iron molder, glass blowers, shoe makers. Earned high wageCommon labors- had little or no skills, and earned low wage
21Day 3 : Unions Tactics used to keep unions out of industry Blacklist, lockouts, strikebreakers (scabs) ,People saw unions as a Marxist idealKarl Marx- Marxism- a theory of socialism in which a class struggle would exist until the workers were finally victorious , creating a classless state.
22Strikes Begin Panic of 1873 struck and wages were cut Great Rail Road Strike of 1877.1st nationwide strike from St. Louis to Chicago(11 states in all)Gun battle broke out in many placesPresident Hayes sent troops in Chicago to put down strike. This ended the strike
23American Federation of Labor (AFL) *American Federation of Labor- Started by Samuel Gompersonly accept skilled workers.Wanted 8hr work day, better working conditions, higher wages (wanted smaller gains)Closed shop- only workers from union could be hiredWanted to make unions more acceptable to mainstream America
24Knight of Labor Knights of Labor -1st nationwide industrial union Called for 8 hour Work day, Equal pay for women, No child labor, Worker owned factoriesUsed arbitration- 3rd party talks, didn’t not strike at firstHaymarket RiotPeople protesting for 8 hr work daySomeone throws bomb. 7 police are killed and 4 protestors by the police.8 men arrested executed for bombing one has a knights or labor card in pocketThis ends the knights of labor.
25Pullman Strike Pullman Palace Car Company George Pullman founded this company and made it a self contained community. He provided everything for the workersDepression of 1893 hits and wages cut by 30%. Rent is increased3 Workers file grievances and are fired. American Railway Union called in to help.
26Pullman StrikeARU American Railway Union- founded by Eugene Debs. They stop handling Pullman cars. Railroads are paralyzed.Pullman attaches mail car to Pullman Car.Pres. Cleveland sends troops in to make sure mail gets delivered. Busting up strike and the ARU collapse.
28ImmigrationBy 1890’s half the immigrants in U.S. were from Eastern and Sothern Europe.People came because or religious persecution, military service, and European class system.Immigrants arrived on the east coast at Ellis Island. (NY City) we do not accept everyone.
29Push and pull factors for Chinese Immigrants Chinese immigrants came to America because of gold rush.Transcontinental R.R. needed workers20 million Chinese lost life in rebellion at homeEconomic condition in china not goodAngel Island is where immigrants arrived on west coast.
30Resurgence of Nativism Nativism- extreme dislike for immigrants by the current populationPeople wanted to limit immigration because:Religion: Most were catholic coming in (destroying protestant nation), Taking jobs, and work as strike breakers.Chinese Exclusionary Act- kept Chinese Immigrants from coming to the U.S. for 10 years and prevented Chinese already here from becoming citizens.
31UrbanizationCities start to grow (NY City 800,000(1860) to 3.5 million (1900)Innovation that allowed Cities to growSkyscrapers, mass transit cable cars, horse cars, trolley cars (pulley system), electric trolley cars3 class Immerge during the end of 1800’sHigh society-Middle class-Working class- the largest populationLived in tenements- dark, crowded multi-family apartments
33The machinesPolitical Machines- Informal political groups that gained power because government could not keep up with growing cityhelped the immigrants and got votes in returnTammany Hall- most famous democratic machine (in New York)William M. “Boss” Tweed- famous leader of Tammany hall
34The Gilded AgeThe Gilded age was coined by Mark Twain and Charles WarnerCalled the Gilded Age because:Everything looks great on outside but underneath lay corruption, poverty, crime, disparity between rich and poor.
35The American DreamIndividualism- idea that a person could go far as their talents and ability would take themHerbert Spencer applied Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and natural selection to society this was called Social Darwinism.Survival of the fittest. Carnegie and Rockefeller believed in this
36Carnegie Starts his “Gospel of Wealth”- believed that the wealthy was obligated to help the poor. He built libraries. Philanthropy started.Settlement houses- places where the poor and immigrants could go get help (food, shelter, medical care, and education) people like Jane Addams believed it was their Christian duty to help the poor. (she opened Hull House)
37Chapter 16 Politics and Reforms Day 5 Baseball became popular , Ragtime (Scott Joplin famous ragtime composer), Schools practicing Americanization,EntertainerMaple Leaf rag
38Sherman Antitrust Act- Made it illegal to form a trust. Spoil System- the winning party gave jobs to their supports. Huge turnover at election time.Pendleton Act- limited the spoil system. People had to take test to get job now.Sherman Antitrust Act- Made it illegal to form a trust.Wabash V. Illinois- said only Federal Gov. could regulate interstate trade.Citizen Outrage by Court ruling, this made Pres. Cleveland create the Interstate Commerce Commission- 1st federal law to regulate interstate commerce.
39PopulismFarmers Started to form Alliances that would soon become the Populist Party because:Production increased because of technology, crop prices fallingHigh tariffs on manufactured goods made it harder to sell products overseasR.R. Charging high ratesBanks charging High Interest ratesGovernment stopped printing GreenbacksGreenbacks-money printed that couldn’t be traded for silver or gold.Caused deflation-money worth more but prices fell. Farmers had borrowed money and croups were bringing lower prices. Interest rates had increased. Farmers lost homes and farms.
40The Grange- 1st national farm organization(1866) formed by Oliver Kelly Was a social and educational organizationStarted cooperatives- farmers came together and bought in bulk (supplies, farm equipment)
41Farmers Alliance- came about in Lampasas County, TX 1877 Alliance met in Ocala, Fl and made a list of demands known as the Ocala DemandsDemands were: sub-treasury, abolition of banks, direct election of senators, govt. owning the R.R., free coinage of silver, lower tariffs. Did not want to start 3rd party.Met in Omaha Nebraska year later and decided to form a new party thePopulist or people’s party wanted:sub-treasury, abolition of banks, direct election of senators, govt. owning the R.R., free coinage of silver, lower tariffs. Did not want to start 3rd partyJames Weaver 1st Presidential candidate to run for the populist party .Got 1 million votes
42Election of 1896 ends Populist Party Democrat candidate Williams Jennings Bryan supported populist ideals. Populist backed him. Bryan lost and the populist party was over.
43SegregationMany African American became Sharecroppers after civil warSharecroppers- landless farmers who farmed other people’s land and gave the owner a portion of the crop.Exodus- is when many African Americans left the south. And went to places like Kansas. Led by Ben SingletonMississippi Plan- is a common name for states passing voting laws to disfranchise certain groups.Laws kept poor whites and African Amer. From voting (disfranchised)Poll tax, literacy test, own property, grandfather clause
44Segregation- separation of races Jim Crow-laws enforcing segregationPlessey V. Ferguson- separate but equal
45Some of the 1st Civil rights activist Lynching- killing of a person w/o a hearingIda B. wells- launched a crusade against lynching.Booker T. Washington- wanted economic advancement. Vocational EducationAtlanta compromise- he told people to postpone the fight for civil rights.W.E.B. Du Bois- wanted immediate equality and started the NAACP