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The Birth Of Modern Nation

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1 The Birth Of Modern Nation
Unit5 Day 1

2 Settling the West Mining Brought the 1st settlers to the west.
Comstock Load- one of the largest silver ore mines found in Six mile canyon, NV. Silver was exhausted and the people left- this is called the Boom and Bust Economy Ghost towns created

3 Mining at Comstock Load

4 Ranching popular after Civil War
Open Range- government owned property where ranchers could let cattle graze Civil war had depleted a lot of the cattle in the U.S. which made prices of meat high. Rail Roads Reached the Great Plains which made shipment on meat back east Easy. The Range would soon close because of ranchers putting up barbed wire Mavericks- were cattle that were found with no symbols to identify the owners.

5 Buffalo Soldiers A lot of cowboys in the west were African American.
buffalo soldiers- name given to African American soldiers who fought against natives on the frontier.

6 Buffalo Soldiers

7 Reason for Settlers settled the West in the late 1800’s.
Rail Road sold land cheap and gave settlers credit. Homestead act of settlers could claim 160 acres of public land and would receive title if lived there for 5 years. (only paid 10 registration fee) But life was hard on frontier How was it hard?

8 Natives Americans Natives were nomads-traveled place to place following the buffalo Natives and settlers started clashing Indian Peace Commission -created two reservation on plains.1 for Sioux,1 for Southern Plains Buffalo population on a decline

9 Clashes with Natives Battle of Little Big Horn
George Custer and the 7th Calvary surrounds Lakota and Cheyenne. All the 7th Calvary killed by natives Sitting Bull was one of the main leader. After battle he headed for Canada.

10 Natives Rounded up Tragedy at Wounded Knee
Natives are doing the Ghost Dance -ritual that native do hoping ancestor will come back and bring buffalo and take white man away. Sitting Bull was killed after returning from Canada. Blamed for natives not stopping the Ghost Dance Troops disarming natives at wounded knee creek a shot was fired and troops killed 200 Lakota women, men, and children


12 Assimilation Allotted 160 acres to natives head of household
Assimilation-absorb a group into a larger group. This is the policy of U.S. towards natives Dawes Act Allotted 160 acres to natives head of household Land left over would be sold individual settlers Natives lost land over time.

13 Industrialization(1865-1900)
Ch 14 Day 2

14 Industry rises Industrialization occurs because of
1. Large Work Force, Natural Resources (water coal, cooper, iron), and Free Enterprises 2. Workforce tripled Large Families and Immigration 20 million arrive mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe. 3. Laissez faire- no governmental interference with the business or market (free Market)

15 4. New Inventions Alexander Gram bell - telephone (1876),
Thomas Edison - phonograph, light bulb, and electric generator, motion picture improved, 1st refrigerated rail car (Gustavus Franklin Swift) 1st Transcontinental cable across the Atlantic. U.S. and Europe had instant contact (Cyrus fields)

16 Rail Road Railroad increased 35,000 miles in 1865 to 200,000 miles of track in 1900. Pacific Railroad Act- provided for the construction of a transcontinental R.R. Land on right away given to R.R. (incentive) Transcontinental R.r. –connected the east with the west. Union Pacific started in Omaha Nebraska Central Pacific started in California They met in Ogden, Utah

17 R.R. Cont. Chinese workers used in the construction
R.R. increased business by increasing available market. Country spilt in to 4 time zones Robber Barons- railroad entrepreneurs who swindled investors and taxpayers, bribed elected officials used insider trading to make fortunes. Ex. Jay Gould –used insider trading to make millions

18 Big Business Andrew Carnegie- Rags to riches. Worked way up in R.R. industry. Got money from investing in R.R. Met Henry Bessemer-who had invented the Bessemer Converter- produced high quality steel at a low price.

19 Integration Vertical integration – a company buys out businesses on which it depends for its operation. Carnegie did this. Horizontal Integration- combining of business that do the same type or work under one cooperation. Standard Oil company under John D. Rockefeller owned 90% of the oil refining by 1880 creating a monopoly. Monopoly- is when a company owns almost all the market in something. Trust- is where one person manage several companies. (standard oil 1st one)

20 Workers Workers did specific task never seeing end product. Since of accomplishment gone Long Hours, Unhealthy working condition Wages were cut (but with deflation actually people were still making more than they were) but people saw getting paid less for the same job. 2 types of Industrial work Craft worker- had special skill or training ex. Machinist, iron molder, glass blowers, shoe makers. Earned high wage Common labors- had little or no skills, and earned low wage

21 Day 3 : Unions Tactics used to keep unions out of industry
Blacklist, lockouts, strikebreakers (scabs) , People saw unions as a Marxist ideal Karl Marx- Marxism- a theory of socialism in which a class struggle would exist until the workers were finally victorious , creating a classless state.

22 Strikes Begin Panic of 1873 struck and wages were cut
Great Rail Road Strike of 1877. 1st nationwide strike from St. Louis to Chicago(11 states in all) Gun battle broke out in many places President Hayes sent troops in Chicago to put down strike. This ended the strike

23 American Federation of Labor (AFL)
*American Federation of Labor- Started by Samuel Gompers only accept skilled workers. Wanted 8hr work day, better working conditions, higher wages (wanted smaller gains) Closed shop- only workers from union could be hired Wanted to make unions more acceptable to mainstream America

24 Knight of Labor Knights of Labor -1st nationwide industrial union
Called for 8 hour Work day, Equal pay for women, No child labor, Worker owned factories Used arbitration- 3rd party talks, didn’t not strike at first Haymarket Riot People protesting for 8 hr work day Someone throws bomb. 7 police are killed and 4 protestors by the police. 8 men arrested executed for bombing one has a knights or labor card in pocket This ends the knights of labor.

25 Pullman Strike Pullman Palace Car Company
George Pullman founded this company and made it a self contained community. He provided everything for the workers Depression of 1893 hits and wages cut by 30%. Rent is increased 3 Workers file grievances and are fired. American Railway Union called in to help.

26 Pullman Strike ARU American Railway Union- founded by Eugene Debs. They stop handling Pullman cars. Railroads are paralyzed. Pullman attaches mail car to Pullman Car. Pres. Cleveland sends troops in to make sure mail gets delivered. Busting up strike and the ARU collapse.

27 Urban America Chapter 15 Day 4

28 Immigration By 1890’s half the immigrants in U.S. were from Eastern and Sothern Europe. People came because or religious persecution, military service, and European class system. Immigrants arrived on the east coast at Ellis Island. (NY City) we do not accept everyone.

29 Push and pull factors for Chinese Immigrants
Chinese immigrants came to America because of gold rush. Transcontinental R.R. needed workers 20 million Chinese lost life in rebellion at home Economic condition in china not good Angel Island is where immigrants arrived on west coast.

30 Resurgence of Nativism
Nativism- extreme dislike for immigrants by the current population People wanted to limit immigration because: Religion: Most were catholic coming in (destroying protestant nation), Taking jobs, and work as strike breakers. Chinese Exclusionary Act- kept Chinese Immigrants from coming to the U.S. for 10 years and prevented Chinese already here from becoming citizens.

31 Urbanization Cities start to grow (NY City 800,000(1860) to 3.5 million (1900) Innovation that allowed Cities to grow Skyscrapers, mass transit cable cars, horse cars, trolley cars (pulley system), electric trolley cars 3 class Immerge during the end of 1800’s High society- Middle class- Working class- the largest population Lived in tenements- dark, crowded multi-family apartments

32 Tenements

33 The machines Political Machines- Informal political groups that gained power because government could not keep up with growing city helped the immigrants and got votes in return Tammany Hall- most famous democratic machine (in New York) William M. “Boss” Tweed- famous leader of Tammany hall

34 The Gilded Age The Gilded age was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Warner Called the Gilded Age because: Everything looks great on outside but underneath lay corruption, poverty, crime, disparity between rich and poor.

35 The American Dream Individualism- idea that a person could go far as their talents and ability would take them Herbert Spencer applied Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and natural selection to society this was called Social Darwinism. Survival of the fittest. Carnegie and Rockefeller believed in this

36 Carnegie Starts his “Gospel of Wealth”- believed that the wealthy was obligated to help the poor. He built libraries. Philanthropy started. Settlement houses- places where the poor and immigrants could go get help (food, shelter, medical care, and education) people like Jane Addams believed it was their Christian duty to help the poor. (she opened Hull House)

37 Chapter 16 Politics and Reforms Day 5
Baseball became popular , Ragtime (Scott Joplin famous ragtime composer), Schools practicing Americanization, Entertainer Maple Leaf rag

38 Sherman Antitrust Act- Made it illegal to form a trust.
Spoil System- the winning party gave jobs to their supports. Huge turnover at election time. Pendleton Act- limited the spoil system. People had to take test to get job now. Sherman Antitrust Act- Made it illegal to form a trust. Wabash V. Illinois- said only Federal Gov. could regulate interstate trade. Citizen Outrage by Court ruling, this made Pres. Cleveland create the Interstate Commerce Commission- 1st federal law to regulate interstate commerce.

39 Populism Farmers Started to form Alliances that would soon become the Populist Party because: Production increased because of technology, crop prices falling High tariffs on manufactured goods made it harder to sell products overseas R.R. Charging high rates Banks charging High Interest rates Government stopped printing Greenbacks Greenbacks-money printed that couldn’t be traded for silver or gold. Caused deflation-money worth more but prices fell. Farmers had borrowed money and croups were bringing lower prices. Interest rates had increased. Farmers lost homes and farms.

40 The Grange- 1st national farm organization(1866) formed by Oliver Kelly
Was a social and educational organization Started cooperatives- farmers came together and bought in bulk (supplies, farm equipment)

41 Farmers Alliance- came about in Lampasas County, TX 1877
Alliance met in Ocala, Fl and made a list of demands known as the Ocala Demands Demands were: sub-treasury, abolition of banks, direct election of senators, govt. owning the R.R., free coinage of silver, lower tariffs. Did not want to start 3rd party. Met in Omaha Nebraska year later and decided to form a new party the Populist or people’s party wanted: sub-treasury, abolition of banks, direct election of senators, govt. owning the R.R., free coinage of silver, lower tariffs. Did not want to start 3rd party James Weaver 1st Presidential candidate to run for the populist party . Got 1 million votes

42 Election of 1896 ends Populist Party
Democrat candidate Williams Jennings Bryan supported populist ideals. Populist backed him. Bryan lost and the populist party was over.

43 Segregation Many African American became Sharecroppers after civil war Sharecroppers- landless farmers who farmed other people’s land and gave the owner a portion of the crop. Exodus- is when many African Americans left the south. And went to places like Kansas. Led by Ben Singleton Mississippi Plan- is a common name for states passing voting laws to disfranchise certain groups. Laws kept poor whites and African Amer. From voting (disfranchised) Poll tax, literacy test, own property, grandfather clause

44 Segregation- separation of races
Jim Crow-laws enforcing segregation Plessey V. Ferguson- separate but equal

45 Some of the 1st Civil rights activist
Lynching- killing of a person w/o a hearing Ida B. wells- launched a crusade against lynching. Booker T. Washington- wanted economic advancement. Vocational Education Atlanta compromise- he told people to postpone the fight for civil rights. W.E.B. Du Bois- wanted immediate equality and started the NAACP

46 W.E.B. Dubois

47 Booker T. Washington

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