Presentation on theme: "U.S. History. America After the Civil War: 1865-1900 The West The West: frontier Farmers, ranchers, & miners closed the last of the frontier at the expense."— Presentation transcript:
America After the Civil War: 1865-1900 The West The West: frontier Farmers, ranchers, & miners closed the last of the frontier at the expense of Indians
Mining was the 1 st attraction to the West; Miners created “instant towns” in areas where gold or silver was discovered
Ranchers used the “open range” to move cattle & sheep
The Farming Bonanza Homestead Act In 1862, the U.S. government began the Homestead Act which encouraged farmers to settle in the West by offering 160 acres of land to families who promised to live there for 5 years 2/3 of all homesteaders failed to farm their land A pioneer sod house
Change in Immigration: In the decades after the Civil War, more and more Europeans immigrated to America. They differed from earlier immigrant groups who mostly came from northern and western Europe, were typically Protestant, spoke English, and arrived with the government’s welcome. In contrast, many of the new immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe, often were Jewish or Catholic, and usually spoke no English. The U.S. government welcomed the wealthy among these new immigrants but forced poorer people to pass health and welfare tests at government reception centers such as the Ellis Island Immigrant Station located in New York Harbor.Ellis Island
transcontinental 1 st transcontinental railroad connected the west coast to eastern cities in 1869 Chinese workers made up a large percentage of laborers on the western leg Irish workers made up a large percentage of laborers on the eastern section
America After the Civil War: 1865-1900 The North The North: Experienced an “Industrial Revolution,” mass immigration, & urbanization
America became the world’s leader in railroads, steel, & oil production
“Big Business” monopolies trusts The Gilded Age saw rise of monopolies (also called trusts)—companies that controlled the majority of one industry: – Rockefeller’s Standard Oil dominated oil production in the USA – Carnegie’s U.S. Steel was the world’s largest steel company The “Bosses” of the Senate
Change in Immigration: Whether Asian or European, these new immigrants tended to settle in areas populated by people from the same countries who spoke the same languages and worshipped in the same ways. Because poverty and political instability were common in their home countries, the new immigrants were likely to be poor. They could not afford to buy farmland, so they worked as unskilled laborers and lived mostly in cities. There they created communities to imitate the cultures of their home countries, including foreign-language newspapers, ethnic stores and restaurants, and houses of worship. The new immigrants did not blend into American society the way earlier immigrants had.
American Federation of Labor & Samuel Gompers: Unskilled laborers were subject to low wages, long workdays, no vacations, and unsafe workplaces. Because individual workers had little power to change the way an employer ran a business, workers banded together in labor unions to demand better pay and working conditions. Then the labor unions banded together for even more power to change the ways employers ran their businesses. The American Federation of Labor, or AFL, was led by Samuel Gompers. He was president of the AFL from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 to his death in 1924. His goal was to use strikes (work stoppages) to convince employers to give workers shorter work days, better working conditions, higher wages, and greater control over how they carried out their workplace responsibilities.
“New Immigration” & Urbanization urbanization Northern cities grew larger (urbanization) as more factories, companies, & stores were created New immigrants – “New immigrants” from southern & eastern Europe came to NY through Ellis Island to get jobs – Steel skyscrapers, subways, & trolley cars transformed cities – Many upper class families moved into suburbs
“New Immigration” & Urbanization urbanization Northern cities grew larger (urbanization) as more factories, companies, & stores were created New immigrants – “New immigrants” from southern & eastern Europe came to NY through Ellis Island to get jobs – Steel skyscrapers, subways, & trolley cars transformed cities – Many upper class families moved into suburbs Before the Gilded Age, almost all European immigrants to the USA came from Western Europe During the Gilded Age, more Eastern & Southern Europeans immigrated to the USA Ellis Island “New immigrants” arrived at Ellis Island in NY New York City in 1907
Gilded Age Workers in the Gilded Age Working conditions in factories were unsafe & workers were paid very little but worked long hours tenement apartments Many urban workers lived in poorly built tenement apartments American Federation of Labor Unions were formed to try to help workers; the most successful was Samuel Gompers’ American Federation of Labor (AFL) but this union was exclusive only allowing skilled, white, male workers to join
Anti-Asian Restrictions As competition for jobs became more difficult, Americans began to discriminate against Asian immigrants, especially in the West – Chinese Exclusion Act – Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 banned all Chinese immigration to the USA (lasted for 60 years) – Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan in 1907 led to fewer Japanese immigrants to the USA