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CH 14 Industrialization. Section 1 – Rise of Industry  GNP – Total value of goods and services produced by a country U.S. GNP was 8X greater in the early.

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Presentation on theme: "CH 14 Industrialization. Section 1 – Rise of Industry  GNP – Total value of goods and services produced by a country U.S. GNP was 8X greater in the early."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH 14 Industrialization

2 Section 1 – Rise of Industry  GNP – Total value of goods and services produced by a country U.S. GNP was 8X greater in the early 1900’s then it was before the Civil War.

3 Natural and Human Resources  Industry needed water, timber, coal, iron, copper  First oil well in Titusville, PA in 1859 Petroleum (Kerosene) Oil fields grew rapidly from Pennsylvania to Texas  Labor needs led to more immigration China and Eastern Europe

4 Free Enterprise and the Government  Laissez-Faire Economics “Let Do” Low taxes, limited government debt  Entrepreneurs  Tariffs and the issue of free trade Contradictions to laissez-faire ideas Did American industry really need protection from foreign competition

5 New Technology  Alexander Graham Bell (Telephone) AT&T  Thomas Edison Electricity  Refrigerated railroad car, automatic loom, sewing machines, telegraph, radios

6 Section 2 - Railroads  Many new inventions made settling the West easier  Nothing aided the settlement of the west more than the Transcontinental Railroad

7 Transcontinental Railroad  Two railroad companies worked on the first Transcontinental Railroad… The Union Pacific Company started in Omaha, Nebraska The Central Pacific Company started in Sacramento, California  Final spike at Promontory Summit, UT on May 10, 1869

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9 Pioneers of the Railroad Industry  Grenville Dodge Union Pacific  “Big Four” Central Pacific  Cornelius Vanderbilt Grand Central Station

10 National Railway System  Time Zones  Huge benefit to the nation’s infrastructure  Travel was safer and more efficient

11 Land Grant System  Government gave railroads land that was sold to raise money for railroad construction

12 Robber Barons  Railroad owners that built their fortunes by swindling investors Jay Gould  Credit Mobilier Scandal  James J. Hill The anti-robber baron Great Northern Railroad  Only transcontinental railroad not eventually forced into bankruptcy

13 Sec 3 Big Business  Corporation – an organization owned by many people but treated by law as though it was a single person The people who owned the corporation were Stockholders The shares of ownership those people owned were called Stocks

14  Companies had two different kinds of costs Fixed Costs – costs that companies pay whether they are running or not Operating Costs – costs that occur when running a company

15 Consolidation of Industry  Vertical Integration A company owns all of the different businesses on which it depends  Horizontal Integration Combining of firms engaged in the same type of business

16  Competition and Laissez-faire economics led to the control of a few very powerful men in industry  These men became the most powerful men in the U.S. during the time.

17  Andrew Carnegie – Steel industry  John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil Company  Jay Gould – Financier, banker

18 Monopolies  When a single company controls an entire market  Trusts – legal concept that allows one person to manage another person’s property

19 Sec 4 Unions  From 1865 to 1897, the U.S. experienced a rise in the value of money called deflation  Workers became angry when companies tried to pay them less and they formed Unions to fight back.

20 2 types of Unions  Trade Union – a union made up of skilled workers such as “Teachers Union”  Industrial Union – a union that united all workers within a certain industry, like the “Pelham High School Union”

21  Workers who tried to organize a strike were fired and put on a blacklist  When workers formed a union companies would use a lockout to not allow them in the factory and refuse to pay them.

22  If the union called for a strike, the employer would hire replacement workers called strikebreakers

23 3 Major Strikes of the late 1800s  The Great Railroad Strike of 1877  The Haymarket Riot  The Pullman Strike

24 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877  The strike involved 80,000 railroad workers in 11 states  It also affected 2/3 of the nation’s railways

25  President Hayes ordered the army to reopen many of the rail lines but before it was over more than 100 people were dead and millions of dollars of equipment had been destroyed.

26 Haymarket Riot  In 1886, organizers called for a strike to fight for an 8 hour work day  In Chicago 3,000 people gathered for a rally  When the police entered someone threw a bomb in the middle of the officers

27  7 police officers and 4 workers were killed  The Knights of Labor were blamed for the bombing

28 Pullman Strike  Pullman cars were a type of rail car used by different train companies  In an effort to end the strike the government began to use the cars for the U.S mail

29  Grover Cleveland sent in troops to end the strike saying that he had to “keep the mail running”


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