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Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology. Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology. Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology

2 Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods in Psychology Ethics in Psychology

3 Chapter 1 What Is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes –Behaviors - refers to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals –Mental processes - not directly observable, refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as thinking, imagining, studying, and dreaming Psychologists are interested in every aspect of human thought, feeling and behavior.

4 Chapter 1 GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY Describe –first goal of psychology is to describe the different ways that organisms behave Explain –second goal of psychology is to explain the cause of behavior Predict –third goal of psychology is to predict how organisms will behave in certain situations Control –the fourth goal of psychology is to control an organisms behavior

5 Chapter 1 Fields of Psychology Seven of the largest subfields of Psychology include: –Developmental –Physiological –Experimental –Personality –Clinical and Counseling –Social –Industrial and Organizational

6 Chapter 1 Developmental Psychology Studies human physical, mental, social and emotional growth from conception to death –Child psychologists –Adolescent psychologists –Life-span psychologists

7 Chapter 1 Physiological Psychology Investigates the biological basis of human behavior, thoughts and emotions –Neuropsychologists –Psychobiologists –Behavioral geneticists

8 Chapter 1 Experimental Psychology Conduct research on basic psychological processes including: –Learning –Memory –Sensation –Perception –Thinking –Motivation –Emotion

9 Chapter 1 Personality Psychology Study the differences among individuals in such traits as: –Sociability –Conscientiousness –Emotional stability –Self-esteem –Agreeableness –Aggressive inclinations –Openness to new experiences

10 Chapter 1 Clinical and Counseling Psychology Seek to help people deal more successfully with their lives –Clinical psychologists –Interested primarily in the diagnosis, causes, and treatment of psychological disorders –Counseling psychologists –Concerned primarily with normal everyday problems of adjustments in life

11 Chapter 1 Social Psychology Study how people influence one another –Study examples: –Interpersonal attraction –Persuasive communications –Attitude formation –Obedience to authority –Conformity to group norms –Interaction of work team members

12 Chapter 1 Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology Psychology applied to the workplace –Study examples: –Selecting and training personnel –Improving productivity and working conditions –Impact of computerization and automation on workers

13 Chapter 1 Enduring Issues in Psychology All psychologists share a common interest in five enduring human issues: –Person/Situation –Nature/Nurture –Stability/Change –Diversity/Universality –Mind/Body

14 Chapter 1 How do psychologists answer questions? Approaches (6) to understanding behavior include: –Biological –Cognitive –Behavioral –Psychoanalytic –Humanistic –Cross cultural

15 Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods in Psychology Ethics in Psychology

16 Chapter 1 HISTORICAL APPROACHES How did psychology begin? –Structuralism: Elements of the Mind –Functionalism: Functions of the Mind –Gestalt Approach: Sensations versus Perceptions –Behaviorism: Observable Behaviors

17 Chapter 1 The Growth of Psychology The history of psychology can be divided into three main stages: –The emergence of a science of the mind –The behaviorist decade –The cognitive revolution

18 Chapter 1 The "New Psychology:" A Science of the Mind Psychology was born in 1879 when Whilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany –In the public eye, a laboratory = science

19 Chapter 1 Structuralism: Wundt and Titchener Wundt was interested in studying thoughts and developing a way to study them scientifically Titchener broke down consciousness into their simplest components: physical sensations, feelings, and images Developed into an approach called Structuralism –Concerned with identifying the units of conscious experience (thought) and how they can be combined and integrated

20 Chapter 1 Functionalism: William James William James challenged structuralism –Pure sensations without associations do not exist in real- life experience –Consciousness cannot be broken into elements it flows in a continuous stream Functionalism was concerned with the ongoing use of conscious experience –Interested in learning and the impact of experience on the brain

21 Chapter 1 Psychodynamic Psychology: Sigmund Freud Freud believed that we are motivated by unconscious instincts and urges that are not available to the rational, conscious part of our mind Psychodynamic theory laid that foundation for the study of personality and psychological disorders

22 Chapter 1 Redefining Psychology: The Study of Behavior Psychology saw itself as the study of mental processes –Primary method of collecting data was introspection or self-observation Behaviorism challenged this idea and focused on behaviors that can be observed and measured

23 Chapter 1 Behaviorism: Watson and Skinner Watson founded behaviorism on the belief that if you cannot locate or measure something (i.e. consciousness), it cannot be the object of scientific study –All mental experiences – thinking, feeling, awareness of self – are nothing more than physiological changes in response to accumulated conditioning or learning Skinner focused on the role of reinforcement –By rewarding certain behavior, we become an active participant in our conditioning or learning

24 Chapter 1 The Cognitive Revolution By the 1960s psychologists came to view behaviorism as only one piece of the explanation of human behavior and mental processes –Began to see humans as active learners not passive recipients of lifes events Two schools of thought paved the way for the Cognitive Revolution: –Gestalt Psychology –Humanistic Psychology

25 Chapter 1 The Cognitive Revolution Gestalt Psychology –Concerned with perception – our tendency to see patterns, to distinguish an object from its background, etc. –Wertheimer, Köhler, and Koffka were interested in tricks of perception. Humanistic Psychology –Emphasizes human potential, the importance of love, belongingness, self-esteem, etc. –Maslow was concerned with feelings and yearnings

26 Chapter 1 Cognitive Psychology Concerned with mental processes: thinking feeling, learning, remembering, decision making, etc. Concerned with how we acquire, process, and use information to solve problems Believe that mental processes can be studied scientifically by observing behavior and making inferences about the kinds of cognitive processes that underlie the behavior

27 Chapter 1 New Directions in Psychology Today, psychologists are more flexible in considering other approaches New theories and initiatives are emerging: –Evolutionary Psychology –Positive Psychology

28 Chapter 1 Multiple Perspectives Today Contemporary psychologists tend to see different perspectives as complementary. –Each perspective contributes to understanding human behavior Most agree that the field advances with the addition of new evidence to support or challenge existing theories.

29 Chapter 1 Where Are The Women? Women have contributed to psychology from its beginnings Women presented papers and joined the national professional association as soon as it was formed in 1892 Women faced discrimination –Some colleges and universities did not grant degrees to women –Professional journals were reluctant to publish their work –Teaching positions were often closed to them

30 Chapter 1 Where Are The Women? Today women outnumber men in the field: –Receive ¾ of the baccalaureate degrees in psychology –Represent approx. ¾ of psychology graduate students –Earned two out of three doctorate degrees in psychology awarded in 1997 They perform key research in all of the psychology subfields

31 Chapter 1 Percentage of Women Recipients of Ph.D.s in Psychology

32 Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods in Psychology Ethics in Psychology

33 Chapter 1 Human Diversity Little attention was paid to human diversity throughout most of the 20 th century Today, understanding human diversity is essential Psychologists have begun to examine how culture, gender, race, and ethnicity can affect human behavior

34 Chapter 1 The Value of Studying Diversity Understanding cultural, racial, ethnic and gender differences in thinking and behavior: –Reduces interpersonal tensions –Separate fact from fiction –Understand how and why groups differ in their values, behaviors, approaches to the world, thought processes and responses to situations –Increase appreciation of the many universal features of human behavior

35 Chapter 1 Gender Gender is the psychological and social meaning attached to being biologically male or female –We have ideals about gender roles – the cultural expectation of acceptable behavior for each gender The study of gender similarities and differences has become part of mainstream psychology –Feminist Theory explores how the views on social roles of women and men influence treatment of people, especially women

36 Chapter 1 Race and Ethnicity Race shapes peoples social identities, sense of self, experiences and even health Psychologists study why race is important and how individuals select or create an ethnic identity and respond to stereotypes Most ethnic minorities are still underrepresented among the ranks of psychologists

37 Chapter 1 Culture Culture provides modes of thinking, acting, and communicating about how the world works and why people behave as they do Culture influences values, attitudes, behaviors and beliefs Psychologists study how culture impacts human behavior and thought

38 Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods in Psychology Ethics in Psychology

39 Chapter 1 Science and the Scientific Method All scientific fields are based on empirical observation –Phenomena of interest can be observed and measured All scientific fields rely on the scientific method as the basis of study –A systematic method of generating hypotheses (educated guesses), collecting data, and explaining the data Data is explained using theories to organize known facts and predict relationships –Allow scientists to formulate new hypothesis to expand on the scope of the theories

40 Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods in Psychology Ethics in Psychology

41 Chapter 1 Research Methods To collect data systematically and objectively, psychologists use a variety of research methods including: –Naturalistic Observation –Case Studies –Surveys –Correlational Research –Experimental Research

42 Chapter 1 Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of humans or animals in their natural environment Advantages –Observed behavior is likely to be more accurate, spontaneous and varied than in a laboratory Disadvantages –Observer bias –May not be able to generalize to other settings or people

43 Chapter 1 Case Studies Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or a few individuals Advantages –Can yield a great deal of detailed, descriptive information Disadvantages –The individual or group is unique – difficult to draw conclusions from a single case –Can be time consuming and expensive –Observer bias

44 Chapter 1 Surveys A research technique in which questionnaires or interviews are administered to a selected group of people Advantages –Large quantity of information quickly –Relatively inexpensive Disadvantages –Must pay close attention to the survey questions –Respondents may not be representative –Response biases –Truthfulness of responses

45 Chapter 1 Correlational Research A research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables Advantages –Description and prediction are possible Disadvantages –Does not identify what causes a relationship to exist

46 Chapter 1 Experimental Method A research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior

47 Chapter 1 Experimental Research Independent variables –The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to test its effects Dependent variables –The variable that is measured to see how it is changed by the independent variable

48 Chapter 1 Experimental Research Experimental group –The group subjected to a change in the independent variable Control group –The group not subjected to a change in the independent variable

49 Chapter 1 Experimental Research Advantages –Can draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships Disadvantages –Lab setting may influence subjects behavior –Unexpected and uncontrolled variables may confound results –All variables cannot be controlled and manipulated

50 Chapter 1 Multimethod Research Many psychologists overcome the limitations of using a single research method by using multiple methods to study a single problem

51 Chapter 1 Importance of Sampling A drawback to every form of research is that it is impossible to measure every variable Study a small sample and then generalize the information to the larger population –Sample –Selection of cases from a larger population –Random sample –Each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected –Representative sample –The characteristics of the participants corresponds closely to the characteristics of the larger population

52 Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods in Psychology Ethics in Psychology

53 Chapter 1 APA Code of Ethics Participants must be informed of the nature of the research in understandable language Informed consent must be documented Risks, possible adverse side effects and limitations on confidentiality must be given in advance If participation is for course credit, equitable alternative activities must be offered Cannot deceive about aspects of the research that would affect participants willingness to participate Deception about the goals of the research can be used only when absolutely necessary to the integrity to the research

54 Chapter 1 Research on Animals Animals are used in experiments in which it would be clearly unethical to use human participants APAs ethical guidelines –Researchers must ensure appropriate consideration of [the animals] comfort, health, and humane treatment.

55 Chapter 1 Chapter Review What is Psychology? –How is psychology defined and what topics do they study? –Given the broad range of careers and interests, what hold psychology together?

56 Chapter 1 Chapter Review, cont The Growth of Psychology –How did the work of Wundt and Titchener, of James, and of Freud contribute to the early development of psychology as a field of study? –How was the approach to human behavior taken by Watson and Skinner different from Freud's? –How have Gestault, humanistic and cognitive psychologists extended the definition of psychology? –How is the field of psychology being defined today? –In psychology's early years, why were relatively few women accepted in the field?

57 Chapter 1 Chapter Review, cont Human Diversity –Why is the study of human diversity important in the field of psychology? –How are psychologists helping us to understand the differences between men and women? –Why are psychologists interested in racial and ethnic differences? –How does culture contribute to human diversity? Psychology as a Science –What features distinguish a scientific field from a field not based in science?

58 Chapter 1 Chapter Review, cont Research Methods in Psychology –Why is natural setting sometimes better than a laboratory for observing behavior? –When can a case study be most useful? –What are some of the benefits of survey research? –What is the difference between correlation and cause and effect? –What kinds of research questions are best studied by experimental research? –What does multimethod research allow psychologists to do? –How can sampling affect the results of a research study?

59 Chapter 1 Chapter Review, cont Ethics and Psychology –Why did Milgrams experiments on obedience raise ethical questions about his research? –Are there ethical guidelines for conducting psychological research? –What objections have been raised regarding research on animal subjects?

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