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Lecture Overview Introducing Psychology Origins of Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Tools for Student Success © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology What is psychology? The scientific study of behavior & mental processes. Psychology focuses on critical thinking & is scientific. Pseudopsychologies (e.g., psychics, mediums) are nonscientific. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs & misconceptions about behavior & mental processes. For example, can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slide are true or false? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work
True or False? 1.In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. 2.Most brain activity stops during sleep. 3.People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it. 4.Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Answers to These (& Other Common Beliefs) are Found Throughout Psychology in Action (9e) 1.In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. – False—(See Chapter 2) 2.Most brain activity stops during sleep. – False—(See Chapter 5) 3.People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it. – False—(See Chapter 15) 4.Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships. – True—(See Chapter 16) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology: Psychology’s Four Goals 1.Description: tells “what” occurred 2.Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred 3.Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur 4.Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology: Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties) Biopsychology/ Neuroscience Clinical & Counseling Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Educational & School Psychology Experimental Psychology © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties Continued) Forensic Psychology Gender/Cultural Psychology Health Psychology Industrial/Organizational Psychology Social Psychology © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology: Ethnicities of Doctorate Recipients in Psychology © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt: “father of psychology” Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection (Titchener key leader) Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (James key leader) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective: unconscious processes & unresolved past conflicts (Freud = key founder) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc Sigmund Freud ( )
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Behavioral Perspective: objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, & Skinner were key figures) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc B. F. Skinner ( )
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Humanistic Perspective: free will, self-actualization, & a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers & Maslow were key figures) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc = + Carl Rogers ( )Abraham Maslow ( )
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Cognitive Perspective: thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, & information processing © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective: genetics & other biological processes in the brain & other parts of the nervous system © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Evolutionary Perspective: natural selection, adaptation, & evolution Sociocultural Perspective: social interaction & cultural determinants © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology: One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology Biopsychosocial model: combines all seven major perspectives © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Why do psychologists & other scientists need multiple perspectives? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking
Do See a Vase &/0r Two Faces? Multiple perspectives allow psychologists to better understand research & complex behavior & mental processes. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Science of Psychology Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Scientific Method © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines Ethical Guidelines for Human Research Participants: Informed consent Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception Debriefing Confidentiality Alternative activities © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines (Continued) Rights of Nonhuman Participants: Advocates believe nonhuman research offers significant scientific benefits. Opponents question these benefits & suggest nonhuman animals cannot give informed consent. General Guidelines: Psychologists must maintain high standards for both human & nonhuman animal research. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods Four key research methods: 1.Experimental 2.Descriptive 3.Correlational 4.Biological © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Art of Prediction
Four Key Research Methods (Continued) 1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause & effect © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) Key features of an experiment: – Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured) – Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determine cause & effect. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) esearcher Potential researcher problems: – Experimenter bias (researcher influences the research results in the expected direction) – Ethnocentrism (believing one's culture is typical of all cultures) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) participant Potential participant problems: – Sample bias (research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population) – Participant bias (research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Descriptive 2. Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Descriptive Three types of descriptive research: Naturalistic Observation (observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat) Survey (assessment of a sample or population) Case Study (in-depth study of a single participant) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
What is the advantage of studying psychological research methods like naturalistic observation? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work
Do You Get it? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational 3. Correlational Research: observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the same direction—either up or down © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
two variables move (or vary) in the opposite direction—either up or down © John Wiley & Sons, Inc Negative Correlation
Research Methods—Correlational Zero Correlation: no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase, decrease, or stay the same) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational Can you see why correlation can never show cause & effect? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Biological 4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology. Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods.
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