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Essentials of Psychology 5e Robert S. Feldman Prepared by:John E. Story, Psy.D. University of Kentucky Lexington Community College.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Psychology 5e Robert S. Feldman Prepared by:John E. Story, Psy.D. University of Kentucky Lexington Community College."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Essentials of Psychology 5e Robert S. Feldman Prepared by:John E. Story, Psy.D. University of Kentucky Lexington Community College

3 Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

4 Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Subfields of Psychology: Psychology’s Family Tree Biopsychology –Specializes in the biological bases of behavior Sensation, perception, learning and thinking –Experimental psychology Methodological study of sensing, perceiving, learning and thinking –Cognitive psychology Emphasis on higher mental processes

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Subfields of Psychology Understanding change and individual differences –Developmental psychology Changes in behavior over the life span (womb to tomb) –Personality psychology Examines consistencies in people’s behavior over time and traits that differentiate us from one another

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Subfields of Psychology Physical and mental health –Health psychology Explores relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease –Clinical psychology Investigates diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Subfields of Psychology Understanding our social networks –Social psychology Studies how people are affected by others –Cross-cultural psychology Focuses on the similarities and differences in psychological functioning across cultures and ethnic groups

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Subfields of Psychology New frontiers –Clinical neuropsychology Focuses on relationships between biological factors and psychological disorders –Evolutionary psychology Examines influence of our genetic heritage and our behavior

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Educating Psychologist Doctoral Degrees –Ph.D. & Psy.D. Master’s Degree Bachelor’s Degree

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychology’s Roots Structuralism –Focused on the basic building blocks of perception, consciousness, thinking, and emotions –Introspection Functionalism –Moved from structure to what the mind does and how behavior functions Gestalt Psychology –“the whole is different from the sum of its parts” Early History –Trephining –“hollow tubes” –Bumps on the head

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Founding Mother’s of Psychology Leta Stetter Hollingworth –Child development and women’s issues Mary Calkins –First female in the APA Karen Horney –Social and cultural aspects to personality June Etta Downey –Personality trait theorist Anna Freud

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Today’s Perspectives Biological –Biological bases of behavior Psychodynamic –Behavioral influences of inner forces Cognitive –How people think, understand, and know about the world Behavioral –Focus on observable events Humanistic –Free will –Natural tendency to be in control of our lives

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychology’s Key Issues Nature versus nurture –How much of our behavior is due to heredity and how much is due to environment? Conscious versus unconscious –How much of our behavior is produced by forces of which we are fully aware? Observable behavior versus internal mental processes –Should psychology only focus on what it can see?

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychology’s Key Issues Free will versus determinism –How much of behavior is a result of free will? Individual differences versus universal principles –How much of our behavior is a consequence of our unique and special qualities?

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychology’s Future Increase in specialization Focus on prevention Greater influence on issues of public interest Increase in diversity

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Scientific Method The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Scientific Method: The Process Identify Questions of Interest Formulate an Explanation: Specify a theory Develop a hypothesis Carry Out Research: Operationalize hypothesis Select a research method Collect data Analyze the data

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Scientific Method: Developing Explanations Theories –Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest Hypothesis –A prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Scientific Method: Conducting Research Operationalization –Process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed Research –Systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge

21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Methods Archival research –Use of existing data in order to test a hypothesis Naturalistic observation –Observation of naturally occurring behavior without intervention

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Methods Survey research –A sample of people are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, and attitudes in order to represent a larger population

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Methods Case study –An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Methods Variables –Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary in some way Correlational research –The relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or “correlated” –Ranges from +1 to -1 –Correlation does not mean “causation”

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Methods Experiment –The relationship between two (or more) variables is investigated by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Experimental Research Experimental manipulation –The change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation Treatment –The manipulation implemented by the experimenter Experimental group –Any group receiving a treatment Control group –A group that receives no treatment

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Experimental Research Independent variable –The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable –The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Experimental Research: Final Step Random assignment to condition –Participants are assigned to different experimental groups or “conditions” on the basis of chance and chance alone Significant outcome –Use of statistical procedures in order to determine whether or not differences between groups are large enough to be significant Replication –Repetition of findings using other procedures in other settings

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Challenges: Ethics Protection of participants from physical and mental harm The right of participants to privacy regarding their behavior The assurance that participation in research is completely voluntary The necessity of informing participants about the nature of procedures prior to participation in the experiment Informed consent –Deception and debriefing

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Research Challenges Choosing participants who represent the scope of human behavior Should animals be used in research?

31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Threats to Experiments Experimental bias –Factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment Experimenter expectations Participant expectations Placebo –A false treatment, such as a pill, “drug”, or other substance without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient

32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Becoming An Informed Consumer of Psychology What was the purpose of the research? How well was the study conducted? Are the results presented fairly?


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