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© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 1 What is Psychology?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview Defining Psychology Psychology in Historical Perspective Contemporary Approaches to Psychology What Psychologists Do Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology: Defined Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Three Key Components science – systematic methods behavior – what can be directly observed mental processes – thoughts, feelings, motives
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Science of Psychology Critical Thinking Skepticism Objectivity Curiosity
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology – A General Science Psychology is not limited to the study of psychological disorders. Freud’s view of human nature positive psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Narcissism Epidemic Narcissism…unusually self-confident, self-assertive, and self-centered. Generation born since 1980s “More narcissistic than early generations” vs. “Attitudes have been stable over time”
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. History of Psychology Western Philosophy Biology and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) 1879 – established 1st psychology lab
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Wundt’s Structuralism identified structures of the mind introspection systematic, detailed self-reports
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. James’ Functionalism identified the functions and purposes of the mind stream of consciousness human interactions with outside world why is human thought adaptive?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology and Evolution Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species, 1859 Natural Selection competition for resources genetic characteristics that promote reproduction and survival are favored environmental changes alter course of evolution
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contemporary Approaches Current Psychological Perspectives Biological Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Evolutionary Sociocultural
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Biological Approach The biological approach focuses on the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system thoughts and emotions have physical basis in brain allowed psychologists to better understand the brain
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior. Notable Behaviorists John Watson B.F. Skinner rejected thought processes
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamics emphasizes unconscious thought conflict between biological drives and demands of society early childhood family experiences Psychoanalysis - Freud
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Humanistic Approach Humanists emphasize positive human qualities capacity for positive growth free will Humanistic Theorists Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing. Information Processing …how humans interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Evolutionary Approach The evolutionary approach uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behavior. Evolutionary Psychologists David Buss Leda Cosmides
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sociocultural Approach examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes studies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within and across countries
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Careers in Psychology Practice / Applied Research Teaching
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Areas of Specialization Physiological Psych / Behavioral Neuroscience Sensation and Perception Learning Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Motivation & Emotion Psychology of Women & Gender Personality Psychology Social Psychology Industrial / Organizational Psychology Clinical & Counseling Psychology Health Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Areas of Specialization Also (but not addressed in text beyond this chapter) Community Psychology School & Educational Psychology Environmental Psychology Forensic Psychology Sport Psychology Cross-Cultural Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Career Settings in Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Influence of Culture Individualistic Cultures individuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social group value independence Collectivistic Cultures emphasize social group and the individual’s role within that group value interdependence
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Influence of Culture Individualistic subjects prefer to work on tasks that they have had previous success with like to emphasize their successes Collectivistic subjects prefer to work on tasks that they have difficulty with self-critical view
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness Mind-Body Connections how the mind impacts the body how the body impacts the mind
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Explain what psychology is and how it differs from an every- day, informal approach to understanding human nature. Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology. Summarize the main themes of the seven approaches to psychology. List some of the areas of specialization and careers in psychology. Describe the connections between the mind and the body.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Defining Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes Historical Foundations of Psychology origins in philosophy and physiology structuralism – Wilhelm Wundt functionalism – William James evolutionary theory – Charles Darwin
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Contemporary Approaches to Psychology current approaches – complementary Specializations and Careers in Psychology practice, research, teaching academic, clinic, private practice, industry, school Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness mind-body connection is a “two-way street”
Chapter 1 What is Psychology?.
Chapter 1 Psychology as a Science Overview. What is Psychology? –Psychology Is the Scientific Study of Mental Processes and Behavior.
The Basics Unit One. Origins of Psychology -Roots in ancient philosophy -Socrates – “ know thyself” -Plato – rely on thought and reason -Aristotle – rely.
Introduction What is Psychology Where it came from What Psychologists do.
Schools & Careers. Psychology Today: A Thriving Science and Profession Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive.
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY Observe Describe behavior Explain Predict Control
Psychology as a Science
Introduction and History of Psychology Chapter 1.
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology: An Introduction Benjamin Lahey11th Edition Slides by Kimberly Foreman.
The 7 PERSPECTIVES of Psychology. The Birth of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt University of Leipzig – Psychology’s first experiment, birth of a science.
Learning Target(S): Define psychology and trace its historical development. Identify and apply the major modern perspectives/approaches.
Questions for focus: Who are the major contributors to the field of psychology? What are the major fields in psychology? What are the major subfields.
Unit 1: Psychology’s History and Approaches
Structuralism and Functionalism
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY Section 1: Why Study Psychology?Why Study Psychology? Section.
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1. Define the following vocabulary words PsychologicalCognitivePsychologyHypothesisTheory Basic Science Applied Science.
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology. From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Prior to 1879 Physiology and philosophy scholars study.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc Defining Psychology Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Key terms: Science: psychology.
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