2Chapter Overview Describe Psychology Research methods of Psychology Goals of PsychologyFields of PsychologyResearch methods of PsychologyExperiments within PsychologyImportant people of Psychology
3What is Psychology?The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Scientists use the SCIENTIFIC METHOD to be unbiased.
4Psychologists seek to observe, describe, explain, predict, and modify behavior and mental processes Psychologists rely on research to learn whether certain methods will work before they use them to help people
5Goals of Psychology 4 Goals of Psychology Description – describe particular behaviors by careful observationsExplanation – explain behaviors by conducting experimentsPrediction – predict when a behavior that is being studied will happen in the futureControl – modify inappropriate behavior
6Psychologists work in many different fields but they all focus on studying and explaining behavior and mental processesBehavior is defined as any action that people can observe or measure, such as walking, talking, sleeping, and eating
7Fields of PsychologyPsychologists specialize in several different areas of practice:Clinical: general health, mental health, child healthCounseling: business or education institutionsSport psychology: athletesExperimental psychology: humans, animalsCognitive psychology: learningDevelopmental psychology: changes in people’s lives
8Real World ExampleIn 2006, the St. Louis Cardinals employed the services of a sports psychologist to meet with players, coaches and staff members.The Cardinals won the World Series in 2006.Do you think the psychologist made a difference?
9Sports psychologists can help athletes improve performance by measuring (through experimentations) athletes’ heart rates and other body processes and by interviewing athletesPsychologists predict that athletes perform best when anxiety is moderatePsychologists help athletes control their behavior and mental processes by teaching them how to control anxiety.
11Fields of Psychology There are 9 fields of Psychology Structuralism FunctionalismPsychoanalytical/PsychodynamicBehavioralHumanisticCognitiveNeuroscience/biopsychologyEvolutionarySocioculturalHand out Organizer
12The “Father of Modern Psychology” 1879Wilhelm WundtFounded first psychology lab in Germany (1879)Associated with the Structuralism field of Psychology
131. StructuralismFocused primarily on investigation of thought processes (The structure of the mind)
142. Functionalism Founded by William James How do people function in the real world?Studied how people work, play, and adapt to their surroundings.He was influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection.Not just physical adaptations, but mental/behavioral ones as well.
153. Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic Founded by Sigmund FreudPsychoanalysis: Examines psychological problems that are presumed to be caused by conflicts.People repressed (pushed away) their feelings to an unconscious part of the mind, leading to nervous disorders.
16History LessonFreud lived in the Victorian Era (Late 1800s – Early 1900s)Society never spoke of sex.Even tables were surrounded by cloth, as to not show the legsThough men often had mistresses, women had to repress their feelings.Many sought Freud’s help.
174. Behavioral Lead by Ivan Pavlov Pavlov’s Dogs – Dogs salivated at the sound of a bell because a bell was rung each time they were fed.Classical ConditioningObserving behavior through scientific methodOther notable behavioral psychologistsB. F. Skinner - believed behavior depends on what happens are people are exposed to a “stimulus”John Watson - believed people have 3 reactions: fear, rage, love
185. HumanisticStresses free will, self actualization and positive growth seeking nature of humansLeaders:Abraham MaslowCarl RogersEmphasis on human potential. Be the best you can be!
196. CognitiveResearches areas of thought, perception and information processing1960s
207. Neuroscience/biopsychology Explores the role of biological factors such as genetics in humans (scientific)For example, Schizophrenia is being studied as a potential psychological disorder that is linked to genetics
218. EvolutionaryFocuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior
229. SocioculturalCombination of social and cultural psych, focusing on social interactions, cultural determinants, and mental processesSocial: Studies groups, social roles, and rules of social actions, and relationshipsCultural: Study of social norms, values, and expectations
23Biopsychosocial Model An integrative model combining the seven major perspectives in contemporary psychologyStructuralism and Functionalism are not located on the diagram. These older schools of thought have now been blended in with the other 7 schools.
24Psychology: The Science Psychologists follow scientific procedures similar to the way other scientists doResearch and experiments help investigate cause-and-effect relationships
252 Types of Research Basic Research Applied Research conducted to study theoretical questions without trying to solve a specific problem (general ideas or concepts)utilizes the principles and discoveries of psychology for practical purposes (finding solutions to real world problems)
26The Scientific Method Identify question and literature review 1.Identify question and literature review2.Develop a testable hypothesis3.Select a research method and collect data4.Analyze the data and accept or reject the hypothesis5.Publish, replicate and seek scientific review6.Build a theory
28Ethical GuidelinesPsychologists must comply with extremely strict ethical guidelinesThe American Psychological Association (APA) has published specific guidelines that must be followed
29Ethical Guidelines (cont.) There are three areas that are addressed by the APAHuman participants: informed consent, voluntary participation, debriefing, confidentiality, and use of students as subjects#1 is the most rigorous guideline because it deals with the rights of people being studiedAnimal Rights: cruelty to animalsClients in therapy: confidentiality
30Animals in ResearchOnly a small number of psychological studies involve animalsPsychologists use animals only when there is no alternative and when they believe the benefit outweighs the harmMost psychological studies that use animals do not harm the animals
314 Methods of Research Experimental Descriptive Correlational Biological
321. Experimental Research The only method of the four that can identify cause and effectExperimental research consists of several variables:Independent Variables: factors the experimenter manipulatesDependent Variables: measurable behaviors of the participantsExperimental controls: include control condition - participants are treated identically to participants in experimental condition, except that the independent variable is not applied to them
33Experimental Research (cont.) In the experimental condition: all participants are exposed to the independent variableExperimental Group: group that receives a treatment in an experimentControl Group: group that receives no treatment in an experiment
352. Descriptive ResearchThis includes several types of studies to gather dataNaturalistic Observation: used to study behavior in its natural habitatSurveys: tests, questionnaires, and interviews to sample a wide variety of behaviors and attitudes (must choose people carefully)Case study: in-depth study of a single research participant
36SurveysPsychologists conduct surveys by asking people to fill out written questionnaires or by interviewing people verballyBy interviewing people with direct questions psychologists can get information about people’s attitudes and behaviors
37Problems with SurveysThe findings of interviews and questionnaires may not be completely accurate because:People may not be honest about their attitudes or behaviorPeople may limit their responses for privacy reasonsPeople may say what they think the interviewers want to hear
383. Correlational Research Allows scientists to determine the degree of relationship between variablesPositive, negative and zero correlations are discussed when using this type of research
39Correlation in Psychology Correlation is a major relationship within psychologyIt CANNOT show a Cause and Effect RelationshipJust because two things are related does not mean one causes the other
404. Biological Research The scientific study of psychology Studies the brain and nervous systemTests used in biological research include:Electrical recordings of brain activity (EEG)Computed tomography (CT)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
41Experimental Research Correlational Research Manipulation and control of variablesDescriptive ResearchNaturalistic Observation, surveys, case studiesCorrelational ResearchStatistical analyses of relationships between variablesBiological ResearchStudies the brain and other parts of the nervous systemPurposeIdentify cause and effect (Meets the explanation goal of psychology)PurposeObserve, collect, and record data (Meets the descriptive goal of psychology)PurposeIdentify relationships and how well one variable predicts another (Meets the predictive goal)PurposeIdentify causation, as well as description, and prediction (Meets 1 or more of the four goals)ConsEthical concerns, practical limitations, artificiality of lab conditions, uncontrolled variables may confound results, researchers & participant biasesProsAllows researchers precise control over variables and cause & effectConsLittle or no control over variables, researcher & participant biases, cannot explain cause & effectProsMinimizes artificiality, easier to collect data, allows description of behavior & mental processes as they occurConsResearchers cannot identify cause & effectProsHelps clarify relationships between variables that cannot be examined by other methods and allows predictionConsShares many or all of the cons of experimental, descriptive, and correlational researchProsShares many or all of the pros of experimental, descriptive, and correlational researchHand out organizer.
42Critical Thinking Making reasoned judgments Most “truths” need to be testedAll evidence is not equal in qualityJust because an expert said it, doesn’t mean it’s trueKeep an open mind
43Gestalt PsychologyGestalt psychology is an alternative to behaviorism and structuralismIt is based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are more than the sum of their parts. They are wholes that give shape, or meaning, to the partsGestalt Psychology aims to organize how the mind organizes pieces of information into meaningful wholesIt was developed by German psychologists Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler