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Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1. Chapter Overview Describe Psychology Describe Psychology o Goals of Psychology o Fields of Psychology Research methods.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1. Chapter Overview Describe Psychology Describe Psychology o Goals of Psychology o Fields of Psychology Research methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1

2 Chapter Overview Describe Psychology Describe Psychology o Goals of Psychology o Fields of Psychology Research methods of Psychology Research methods of Psychology o Experiments within Psychology Important people of Psychology Important people of Psychology

3 What is Psychology? Scientists use the SCIENTIFIC METHOD to be unbiased.

4 Psychologists seek to observe, describe, explain, predict, and modify behavior and mental processes Psychologists seek to observe, describe, explain, predict, and modify behavior and mental processes Psychologists rely on research to learn whether certain methods will work before they use them to help people Psychologists rely on research to learn whether certain methods will work before they use them to help people

5 Goals of Psychology

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7 Fields of Psychology Psychologists specialize in several different areas of practice: Psychologists specialize in several different areas of practice: o Clinical: general health, mental health, child health o Counseling: business or education institutions o Sport psychology: athletes o Experimental psychology: humans, animals o Cognitive psychology: learning o Developmental psychology: changes in people’s lives

8 Real World Example In 2006, the St. Louis Cardinals employed the services of a sports psychologist to meet with players, coaches and staff members. In 2006, the St. Louis Cardinals employed the services of a sports psychologist to meet with players, coaches and staff members. The Cardinals won the World Series in The Cardinals won the World Series in Do you think the psychologist made a difference? Do you think the psychologist made a difference?

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10 Psychological Professionals

11 Fields of Psychology There are 9 fields of Psychology There are 9 fields of Psychology 1.Structuralism 2.Functionalism 3.Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic 4.Behavioral 5.Humanistic 6.Cognitive 7.Neuroscience/biopsychology 8.Evolutionary 9.Sociocultural

12 The “Father of Modern Psychology”

13 1. Structuralism

14 2. Functionalism

15 3. Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic Founded by Sigmund Freud Founded by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis: Examines psychological problems that are presumed to be caused by conflicts. Psychoanalysis: Examines psychological problems that are presumed to be caused by conflicts. People repressed (pushed away) their feelings to an unconscious part of the mind, leading to nervous disorders. People repressed (pushed away) their feelings to an unconscious part of the mind, leading to nervous disorders.

16 History Lesson Freud lived in the Victorian Era (Late 1800s – Early 1900s) Freud lived in the Victorian Era (Late 1800s – Early 1900s) Society never spoke of sex. Society never spoke of sex. Even tables were surrounded by cloth, as to not show the legs Even tables were surrounded by cloth, as to not show the legs Though men often had mistresses, women had to repress their feelings. Though men often had mistresses, women had to repress their feelings. Many sought Freud’s help. Many sought Freud’s help.

17 4. Behavioral

18 5. Humanistic

19 6. Cognitive Researches areas of thought, perception and information processing Researches areas of thought, perception and information processing 1960s 1960s

20 7. Neuroscience/biopsychology Explores the role of biological factors such as genetics in humans (scientific) Explores the role of biological factors such as genetics in humans (scientific) For example, Schizophrenia is being studied as a potential psychological disorder that is linked to genetics For example, Schizophrenia is being studied as a potential psychological disorder that is linked to genetics

21 8. Evolutionary Focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior Focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior

22 9. Sociocultural Combination of social and cultural psych, focusing on social interactions, cultural determinants, and mental processes Combination of social and cultural psych, focusing on social interactions, cultural determinants, and mental processes Social: Studies groups, social roles, and rules of social actions, and relationships Social: Studies groups, social roles, and rules of social actions, and relationships Cultural: Study of social norms, values, and expectations Cultural: Study of social norms, values, and expectations

23 Biopsychosocial Model An integrative model combining the seven major perspectives in contemporary psychology An integrative model combining the seven major perspectives in contemporary psychology Structuralism and Functionalism are not located on the diagram. These older schools of thought have now been blended in with the other 7 schools. Structuralism and Functionalism are not located on the diagram. These older schools of thought have now been blended in with the other 7 schools.

24 Psychology: The Science Psychologists follow scientific procedures similar to the way other scientists do Psychologists follow scientific procedures similar to the way other scientists do Research and experiments help investigate cause- and-effect relationships Research and experiments help investigate cause- and-effect relationships

25 2 Types of Research Basic Research Applied Research conducted to study theoretical questions without trying to solve a specific problem (general ideas or concepts) conducted to study theoretical questions without trying to solve a specific problem (general ideas or concepts) utilizes the principles and discoveries of psychology for practical purposes (finding solutions to real world problems) utilizes the principles and discoveries of psychology for practical purposes (finding solutions to real world problems)

26 The Scientific Method 1. Identify question and literature review 2. Develop a testable hypothesis 3. Select a research method and collect data 4. Analyze the data and accept or reject the hypothesis 5. Publish, replicate and seek scientific review 6. Build a theory

27 The Scientific Method

28 Ethical Guidelines Psychologists must comply with extremely strict ethical guidelines Psychologists must comply with extremely strict ethical guidelines The American Psychological Association (APA) has published specific guidelines that must be followed The American Psychological Association (APA) has published specific guidelines that must be followed

29 Ethical Guidelines (cont.) There are three areas that are addressed by the APA There are three areas that are addressed by the APA 1.Human participants: informed consent, voluntary participation, debriefing, confidentiality, and use of students as subjects #1 is the most rigorous guideline because it deals with the rights of people being studied #1 is the most rigorous guideline because it deals with the rights of people being studied 2.Animal Rights: cruelty to animals 3.Clients in therapy: confidentiality

30 Animals in Research Only a small number of psychological studies involve animals Only a small number of psychological studies involve animals Psychologists use animals only when there is no alternative and when they believe the benefit outweighs the harm Psychologists use animals only when there is no alternative and when they believe the benefit outweighs the harm Most psychological studies that use animals do not harm the animals Most psychological studies that use animals do not harm the animals

31 4 Methods of Research 1.Experimental 2.Descriptive 3.Correlational 4.Biological

32 1. Experimental Research

33 Experimental Research (cont.)

34 Here’s an Example

35 2. Descriptive Research

36 Surveys Psychologists conduct surveys by asking people to fill out written questionnaires or by interviewing people verbally Psychologists conduct surveys by asking people to fill out written questionnaires or by interviewing people verbally o By interviewing people with direct questions psychologists can get information about people’s attitudes and behaviors

37 Problems with Surveys The findings of interviews and questionnaires may not be completely accurate because: The findings of interviews and questionnaires may not be completely accurate because: 1.People may not be honest about their attitudes or behavior 2.People may limit their responses for privacy reasons 3.People may say what they think the interviewers want to hear

38 3. Correlational Research Allows scientists to determine the degree of relationship between variables Allows scientists to determine the degree of relationship between variables Positive, negative and zero correlations are discussed when using this type of research Positive, negative and zero correlations are discussed when using this type of research

39 Correlation in Psychology Correlation is a major relationship within psychology Correlation is a major relationship within psychology It CANNOT show a Cause and Effect Relationship It CANNOT show a Cause and Effect Relationship Just because two things are related does not mean one causes the other Just because two things are related does not mean one causes the other

40 4. Biological Research The scientific study of psychology The scientific study of psychology Studies the brain and nervous system Studies the brain and nervous system Tests used in biological research include: Tests used in biological research include: o Electrical recordings of brain activity (EEG) o Computed tomography (CT) o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

41 Experimental Research Manipulation and control of variables Experimental Research Manipulation and control of variables Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation, surveys, case studies Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation, surveys, case studies Correlational Research Statistical analyses of relationships between variables Correlational Research Statistical analyses of relationships between variables Biological Research Studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system Biological Research Studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system Purpose Identify cause and effect (Meets the explanation goal of psychology) Purpose Purpose Observe, collect, and record data (Meets the descriptive goal of psychology) Purpose Purpose Identify relationships and how well one variable predicts another (Meets the predictive goal) Purpose Purpose Identify causation, as well as description, and prediction (Meets 1 or more of the four goals) Purpose Cons Ethical concerns, practical limitations, artificiality of lab conditions, uncontrolled variables may confound results, researchers & participant biases Cons Pros Allows researchers precise control over variables and cause & effect Pros Cons Little or no control over variables, researcher & participant biases, cannot explain cause & effect Cons Pros Minimizes artificiality, easier to collect data, allows description of behavior & mental processes as they occur Pros Cons Researchers cannot identify cause & effect Cons Pros Helps clarify relationship s between variables that cannot be examined by other methods and allows prediction Pros Cons Shares many or all of the cons of experimental, descriptive, and correlational research Cons Pros Shares many or all of the pros of experimental, descriptive, and correlational research Pros

42 Critical Thinking Making reasoned judgments Making reasoned judgments 1.Most “truths” need to be tested 2.All evidence is not equal in quality 3.Just because an expert said it, doesn’t mean it’s true 4.Keep an open mind

43 Gestalt Psychology Gestalt psychology is an alternative to behaviorism and structuralism Gestalt psychology is an alternative to behaviorism and structuralism It is based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are more than the sum of their parts. They are wholes that give shape, or meaning, to the parts It is based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are more than the sum of their parts. They are wholes that give shape, or meaning, to the parts Gestalt Psychology aims to organize how the mind organizes pieces of information into meaningful wholes Gestalt Psychology aims to organize how the mind organizes pieces of information into meaningful wholes It was developed by German psychologists Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler It was developed by German psychologists Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler

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