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Definition & Goals Section A Module 1. Definition of Psychology Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors.

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Presentation on theme: "Definition & Goals Section A Module 1. Definition of Psychology Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Definition & Goals Section A Module 1

2 Definition of Psychology Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors refers to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals (eating, speaking, laughing, running, reading, and sleeping) Mental processes are not directly observable (thinking, imagining, studying, or dreaming) The current definition is very broad but psychologists usually have four specific goals in mind when they study behavior or mental process

3 Goals of Psychology The psychologists four goals are: Describe the different ways that organisms behave Explain the causes of the behavior Predict how organisms will behave in certain situations Control an organism’s behavior

4 Modern Approaches Section B Module 1

5 More Approaches, More Answers Six approaches to reaching goals Biological approach focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environment to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping techniques Cognitive approach how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel Behavioral approach studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors Psychoanalytic approach stresses the influence of unconscious Humanistic approach emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment Cross-cultural approach examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning of a culture’s members

6 Biological Approach Biological approach is used by researchers called psychobiologists and they use a number of different research methods including computerized photos of brains Psychobiologists show that genetic factors influence a wide range of human behaviors Genes use a chemical alphabet to write instructions for the development of the brain and body and the manufacture of chemicals that affect everything we do Researchers recently developed a test that identified high levels of certain proteins in the blood of infants who later developed autism

7 Biological Approach Why do my hands sweat? (pg 6) Why does test anxiety affect our output? (pg 6)

8 Cognitive Approach Psychologists use the cognitive approach to study why autistic individual differ in the development of language and social skills Why do autistics have problems acquiring cognitive, language, and communication skills? (pg 7) Cognitive Neuroscience involves taking pictures of structures and functions of the living brain during performance of a a variety of mental or cognitive processes, such as thinking, planning, naming, and recognizing objects Can you worry too much? (pg 7) What are the two components to test anxiety? (pg 7) How does women’s test anxiety differ from men? (pg 7)

9 Behavioral Approach A basic example a behavior principle are rewards or punishments that can modify, change, or control behavior B.F. Skinner developed the behavioral approach into a major force in psychology His ideas stress the importance of environmental reinforces and the exclusion of mental processes His ideas are called strict behaviorism Albert Bandura develop a behavioral model called social learning approach that stressed that our behaviors are influenced by environmental events, observation, imitation, and thought processes Can I redirect my worrying? (pg 8) What are the six self management practices that are related to increasing studying time and achieving better scores? (pg 8)

10 Psychoanalytic Approach Psychoanalytical approach would look at why other personalities develop to deal with difficult experiences Sigmund Freud treated a number of patients with psychological problems Freud believed that the first five years have a profound affect on our lives Freud felt that bad thoughts and memories were stored deep in the unconscious Dream analysis was one of the ways he brought the unconscious out Psychoanalytic approach would search for hidden or unconscious forces underlying test anxiety Is test anxiety related to procrastination? (pg 9) What type of students are regular procrastinators? (pg 9)

11 Humanistic Approach Developing close personal relationships and reaching true potential is the humanistic approach Humanists believe that we may have to struggle to reach our potential but we have control of our fate and are free to become whatever we are capable of being It emphasizes the positive side of human nature Abraham Maslow was one of the major figures that established humanistic approach Many behaviorists regard the humanistic approach as a philosophic way of life because it has a lack of rigorous experimental methods How can students reach their potentials? (pg 10) What are similar characteristics that successful students share? (pg 10)

12 Cross-Cultural Approach The differences in diagnosing autism in the U.S., China, and Germany show the influence of cultural factors How do other cultures deal with test anxiety? (pg 11) Cultural plays a big role in determining the intensity and expression of anxiety What three countries had the highest test anxiety scores? (pg 11) What type of successful students are admired in America? (pg 11) By combining all six approaches psychologists stand a better chance of reaching their four goals of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling behavior

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