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AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Child development Chapter 2: Cognitive development How children’s thinking develops
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Piaget’s Theory 1 Constructivist assumptions Babies start with simple schemas. They learn new schemas by –adaptation –assimilation –accommodation. This is discovery learning.
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Piaget’s Theory 2 Learning is in cognitive stages Sensorimotor stage (zero to two years) –object permanence + research studies Preoperational stage (two to seven years) –animism; centration; egocentrism; + research studies Concrete operational stage (seven to 11 years) –logical thought; conservation; reversibility; + research studies Formal operational stage (12 years +) –abstract concepts + research studies
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Piaget’s Theory 3 Evaluation of: his theory rigid stages; sequential shifts; ethnocentrism; discovery vs guidance; formal operational achievement his research methods biased samples; standardisation, control; lack of clarity; biased assumptions his overall work innovative approach; importance of cognitive development; clinical observations of children his contribution to education active discovery; implications in the classroom – and learning
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Vygotsky’s Theory 1 Assumptions Learning through social experiences –internalisation –zone of proximal development – Learning is a socio-cultural process.
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Vygotsky’s Theory 2 Scaffolding Guided participation Language
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Vygotsky’s Theory 3 His contribution to education –language (supported by Bruner) –peer tutoring –collective argumentation –community of enquiry Evaluation of Vygotsky’s theory –acceleration of cognitive development vs Piaget’s stages –encouragement or discouragement of independent learning and initiative –assumptions about adult participation
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Vygotsky and Piaget compared VygotskyPiaget Cognitive development is driven by social interaction and experience within a culture Cognitive development is driven by the child’s inbuilt tendency to adapt to new experiences Child learns through instruction and guidance Child learns through active self- discovery Cognitive development can be accelerated Child will learn only when ready The ability to use language is the key to cognitive development. Outward monologues direct thinking and later become internalised as thought Language develops as a result of cognitive development. Outward monologues are meaningless and egocentric speech is incidental to thought
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Nativist explanations 1 Assumptions We have innate cognitive structures. Genetic predispositions for cognition –e.g. grammar; perceptual abilities. Learning is at least partly genetically determined. Evaluation of the explanation –challenges Piaget –an incomplete explanation
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Information-processing approach 1 Assumptions Brain processing is similar to computer processing With key changes in how information is processed as the child develops Cognitive, i.e. processing, efficiency increases because of: –increased processing capacity and efficiency, and development of problem-solving rules and metacognition Siegler’s research: –overlapping waves –increasingly complex cognitive strategies
AQA(B) PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 © Hodder Education 2009 Information-processing approach 2 Evaluation Siegler’s research: sequential change and importance of feedback and practice individual experience empirical methods The information-processing approach to cognitive development: Separating components of cognition Numerous studies Applications to teaching Links with neurophysiology
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