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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, PART 1 Cognition – Mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used to solve problems. Cognitive.

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Presentation on theme: "COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, PART 1 Cognition – Mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used to solve problems. Cognitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, PART 1 Cognition – Mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used to solve problems. Cognitive Development – Refers to the changes that occur in children’s mental skills and abilities over time.

2 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

3 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Scheme – (Schema for singular, Schemata for plural) An organized pattern of thought or action that one constructs to interpret some aspect of one’s experience. Represent the way that people organize and understand the things around them.

4 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Symbolic schemes – internal mental symbols that one uses to represent aspects of experience. Cognitive operation – an internal mental activity that one performs on objects or thoughts.

5 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Assimilation – The process of interpreting new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemes. Accommodation – The process of modifying existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences. Examples….

6 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

8 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2yrs) Stage 2: Preoperational Stage (2-7yrs) Stage 3: Concrete Operations (7-11yrs) Stage 4: Formal Operations (11-on) Invariant developmental sequence!

9 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 6 substages to Sensorimotor Stage: Stage 1 (0-1mo) – Reflexes Stage 2 (1-4mos) – Primary Circular Reactions Stage 3 (4-8mos) – Secondary Circular Reactions Stage 4 (8-12mos) – Purposeful coordination of secondary schemes Stage 5 (12-18mos) – Tertiary Circular Reactions Stage 6 (18-24mos) – Mental Solutions

10 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

11 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Object Permanence – knowledge that an object continues to exist independent of our seeing, hearing, touching, tasting or smelling it! Stage 1 – Tracks, then ignores

12 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Object Permanence – knowledge that an object continues to exist independent of our seeing, hearing, touching, tasting or smelling it! Stage 4 – Search for objects that disappear in last place found

13 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Object Permanence – knowledge that an object continues to exist independent of our seeing, hearing, touching, tasting or smelling it! Stage 1 – Tracks, then ignores Stage 2 – Looks where it disappeared Stage 3 – Search for partially hidden Stage 4 – Search for objects that disappear in last place found Stage 5 – Follows series of visible displacements Stage 6 – Fully developed

14 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development A.Imitation 1.What Piaget thought 2.New evidence

15 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development A.Imitation 1.What Piaget thought 2.New evidence B.Deferred imitation 1. Definition – ability to reproduce a modeled activity that has been witnessed at some point in the past. 2. New evidence

16 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

17 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Preconceptual Period (2-4 Years) A. Accomplishments 1. Symbolic Function

18 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Preconceptual Period (2-4 Years) A. Accomplishments 1. Symbolic Function 2. Begin Pretend Play

19 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Preconceptual Period (2-4 Years) A. Accomplishments 1. Symbolic Function 2. Begin Pretend Play B.Errors 1.Animism 2.Precausal or Transductive reasoning 3.Egocentrism

20 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Egocentrism

21 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Egocentrism

22 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Egocentrism

23 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Intuitive Period (4-7 Years) A.Accomplishments B.Errors 1.Classification

24 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Intuitive Period (4-7 Years) A.Accomplishments B.Errors 1.Classification 2.Conservation

25 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Intuitive Period (4-7 Years) A.Accomplishments B.Errors in Conservation : Mass

26 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Intuitive Period (4-7 Years) A.Accomplishments B.Errors in Conservation : AREA

27 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development The Preoperational Stage: 2-7 Years, Intuitive Period (4-7 Years) A.Accomplishments B.Errors in Conservation: Liquid

28 Errors in Conservation

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30 The Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11 Years A.Accomplishments 1.Logical Reasoning 2.Reversibility COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

31 The Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11 Years A.Accomplishments 1.Logical Reasoning 2.Reversibility 3.Seriation 4.Transitivity COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development B. Still having trouble….

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33 The Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up) Mental actions performed on ideas and propositions. Can reason logically about hypothetical processes and events that may have no basis in reality. -Deductive reasoning -Does everyone reach this stage? COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

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35 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Overview (overheads)

36 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Evaluating Piaget Contributions:

37 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Evaluating Piaget Present conservation of number experiments Criticisms 1. Underestimated abilities 2. Competence/performance 3. Stages 4. How do they progress? 5.Ignored social & cultural influences

38 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

39 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Core Knowledge Perspective A view that assumes infants begin life with innate special-purpose knowledge systems. Physical Knowledge Numerical Knowledge Linguistic Knowledge Psychological Knowledge Biological Knowledge

40 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Core Knowledge Perspective A view that assumes infants begin life with innate special-purpose knowledge systems. Evaluation of this perspective?

41 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Sociocultural Theory – Vygotsky’s perspective on cognitive development, in which children acquire their culture’s values, beliefs, and problem-solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society.

42 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Zone of Proximal Development: the range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner.

43 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Zone of Proximal Development: the range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner. Guided participation – adult-child interactions in which children’s cognitions and modes of thinking are shaped as they participate with or observe adults engaged in culturally relevant activities. Context independent learning

44 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The Role of Language in Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory of Language & Thought Suggested Language reflects child’s existing knowledge, not construction of new knowledge. Vygotsky’s Theory of Language & Thought Suggested private speech helps children plan strategies. Who is correct?

45 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The Role of Language in Cognitive Development Who is correct? Recent Research Suggests:


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