Presentation on theme: "Evaluate Theories of Cognitive Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Evaluate Theories of Cognitive Development VygotskyEvaluate Theories of Cognitive Development
2ConnectWhat is the difference between a scientist and an apprentice?
3Lev Semeonovich Vygotsky (1896-1934) Russian psychologist, contemporary of Piaget but his work not published in English until after his death in 1934Where Piaget saw the child as a scientist, Vygotsky saw the child as an apprentice
4I am Vygotsky. I believe children are born with considerable thinking abilities and their cognitive development takes place within their culture.I believe children pick up the tools for thinking, cultural tools (language, writing etc) and these are developed around them in the home
5Vygotsky focused on the importance of two major influences on children’s development of understanding:social interactionlanguageHello
6Similarities to Piaget Like Piaget, Vygotsky saw children as curious, problem-solving beings who play an active part in their own development.
7DifferencesWhere he differed from Piaget was in his view of the importance of the role of other, more knowledgeable people in children’s development.Vygotsky argued that although children can acquire some concepts through their own unaided play, they acquire the mechanisms of thinking and learning as a result of the social interactions between themselves and the adults around them.
8ActivateVygotskyDevelopment takes place within culture – social and cultural influencesOur culture teaches us how to think and what to thinkThe child is an apprentice – they learn from a skilled person (a More Knowledgeable Other – MKO)
9Vygotsky provides the example of finger pointing: initially, this behaviour begins as a meaningless gesture; however, as people react to the gesture, it becomes a movement that has meaning.in particular, the pointing gesture represents an interpersonal connection between individuals.
10ZPD –An idea central to Vygotsky’s theory is the zone of proximal development (ZPD):This is the area between the child’s actual developmental level and the potential level which could be achieved with the help of adults or more experienced peers.Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction
11Proximal Proximal means what comes next: the idea is that a child is only able to take the next step in their cognitive development if another person (typically an adult) supports and prompts them to do so. This sort of assistance has been called scaffolding.
12Zone of proximal development ActivatZone of proximal developmentChild’s potential abilityThe child moves through the ZPD with the help of MKOsThe gap between where a child is now and where they can potentially get toChild’s abilityZPD
13ZPD 2, Who can influence it? 4, What does this proves? 1. What it is? 1) Read the information sheet and make notes to report on the key ideas about Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development2, Who caninfluence it?4, What doesthis proves?1. What it is?ZPD5. Key terms?3. Give anexample2) State what is mean by Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (3).
14ScaffoldingScaffolding: support and prompting, usually provided by an adult, which helps a child achieve cognitive tasks they could not achieve alone.An important aspect of scaffolding is that there is a gradual withdrawal of support as the child’s knowledge and confidence increase.
15Vygotsky’s view: Contrast with Piaget: “…what a child can do with assistance today she will be able to do by herself tomorrow.”(Vygotsky, 1978)Contrast with Piaget:“Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand, that which we allow him to discover for himself will remain with him visible for the rest of his life.” (Piaget, in Piers, 1972)
16Vygotsky believed that much cognitive development requires informal teaching – discovery learning (as Piaget had suggested) is not enough.
17Some Strengths of Vygotsky’s theory + Practical applications e.g peer teaching; scaffolding+ Empirical evidence.+ Takes society and culture into account.+ Sides with nurture.
18Some limitations of Vygotsky’s theory - Children's development could be artificially accelerated. Conflicts with Piaget's 'concept of readiness'.- Emphasis on instruction is likely to reduce the child's ability to think independently.- Unscientific.- Does not account for individual differences, such as IQ.- Ignores the role of nature in cognitive development.
19Issue Piaget’s view Vygotsky’s view Source of cognitive development Cognitive development is driven by an inbuilt tendency to adapt to new experiencesCognitive development is driven by social interaction experience within a cultureConcept acquisitionChild learns through activeself-discovery - a mainly solitary process of adaptation of schemasChild learns through instruction and guidance - results from social experienceRole of instructionChild will only learn when readyCognitive development can be accelerated - increases scope of cognitive development, by enabling learningLanguage and thoughtLanguage develops as a result of cognitive development. Outward monologues are meaningless and egocentric speech is incidental to thoughtThe ability to use language is the key to cognitive development. Outward monologues direct thinking and later become internalised as thought.
20Activate V P P V V P Piaget Vygotsky 1) Match up the key ideas with the correct psychologist on developmental psychology.VChildren mature because of their experiencesPiagetPBiological perspective- children need tomature to developPChild development is dependent on ageChild development is influenced by theirsocial experiences, especially with parentsand social experience of the culture theygrow up in.VygotskyVVSocial interactionPChildren learn through exploring their environment
21Demonstrate Comparisons… Draw this table and complete it with details of the comparisons between Piaget and VygotskyPiagetVygotskyHow the child is seenAs a scientistAs an apprenticeHow the child learnsVariable or fixed?Key wordsNature or nurture?