Presentation on theme: "Evaluate Theories of Cognitive Development. What is the difference between a scientist and an apprentice?"— Presentation transcript:
Evaluate Theories of Cognitive Development
What is the difference between a scientist and an apprentice?
Lev Semeonovich Vygotsky (1896-1934) Russian psychologist, contemporary of Piaget but his work not published in English until after his death in 1934 Where Piaget saw the child as a scientist, Vygotsky saw the child as an apprentice
I am Vygotsky. I believe children are born with considerable thinking abilities and their cognitive development takes place within their culture. I believe children pick up the tools for thinking, cultural tools (language, writing etc) and these are developed around them in the home
Vygotsky focused on the importance of two major influences on children’s development of understanding: social interaction language Hello
Like Piaget, Vygotsky saw children as curious, problem-solving beings who play an active part in their own development.
Where he differed from Piaget was in his view of the importance of the role of other, more knowledgeable people in children’s development. Vygotsky argued that although children can acquire some concepts through their own unaided play, they acquire the mechanisms of thinking and learning as a result of the social interactions between themselves and the adults around them.
Development takes place within culture – social and cultural influences Our culture teaches us how to think and what to think The child is an apprentice – they learn from a skilled person (a More Knowledgeable Other – MKO)
Vygotsky provides the example of finger pointing: initially, this behaviour begins as a meaningless gesture; however, as people react to the gesture, it becomes a movement that has meaning. in particular, the pointing gesture represents an interpersonal connection between individuals.
An idea central to Vygotsky’s theory is the zone of proximal development (ZPD): This is the area between the child’s actual developmental level and the potential level which could be achieved with the help of adults or more experienced peers. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction
Proximal means what comes next: the idea is that a child is only able to take the next step in their cognitive development if another person (typically an adult) supports and prompts them to do so. This sort of assistance has been called scaffolding.
Child’s ability Child’s potential ability The gap between where a child is now and where they can potentially get to The child moves through the ZPD with the help of MKOs
1) Read the information sheet and make notes to report on the key ideas about Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development 2) State what is mean by Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (3). ZPD 1. What it is? 3. Give an example 4, What does this proves? 2, Who can influence it? 5. Key terms?
Scaffolding: support and prompting, usually provided by an adult, which helps a child achieve cognitive tasks they could not achieve alone. An important aspect of scaffolding is that there is a gradual withdrawal of support as the child’s knowledge and confidence increase.
Vygotsky’s view: “…what a child can do with assistance today she will be able to do by herself tomorrow.” (Vygotsky, 1978) Contrast with Piaget: “Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand, that which we allow him to discover for himself will remain with him visible for the rest of his life.” (Piaget, in Piers, 1972)
Vygotsky believed that much cognitive development requires informal teaching – discovery learning (as Piaget had suggested) is not enough.
Some Strengths of Vygotsky’s theory Some Strengths of Vygotsky’s theory + Practical applications e.g peer teaching; scaffolding + Empirical evidence. + Takes society and culture into account. + Sides with nurture.
Some limitations of Vygotsky’s theory - Children's development could be artificially accelerated. Conflicts with Piaget's 'concept of readiness'. - Emphasis on instruction is likely to reduce the child's ability to think independently. - Unscientific. - Does not account for individual differences, such as IQ. - Ignores the role of nature in cognitive development.
IssuePiaget’s viewVygotsky’s view Source of cognitive development Cognitive development is driven by an inbuilt tendency to adapt to new experiences Cognitive development is driven by social interaction experience within a culture Concept acquisitionChild learns through active self-discovery - a mainly solitary process of adaptation of schemas Child learns through instruction and guidance - results from social experience Role of instructionChild will only learn when ready Cognitive development can be accelerated - increases scope of cognitive development, by enabling learning Language and thoughtLanguage develops as a result of cognitive development. Outward monologues are meaningless and egocentric speech is incidental to thought The ability to use language is the key to cognitive development. Outward monologues direct thinking and later become internalised as thought.
Child development is dependent on age Biological perspective- children need to mature to develop Children mature because of their experiences Child development is influenced by their social experiences, especially with parents and social experience of the culture they grow up in. Social interaction Children learn through exploring their environment Piaget Vygotsky 1) Match up the key ideas with the correct psychologist on developmental psychology.
Draw this table and complete it with details of the comparisons between Piaget and Vygotsky PiagetVygotsky How the child is seenAs a scientistAs an apprentice How the child learns Variable or fixed? Key words Nature or nurture?