Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development - Piaget"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cognitive Development - Piaget Piaget: constructivist: knowledge that the child acquires is constructed from the child’s experience - not innate.-born with ability and incentive to learn-must be active in order to learn-internalization of physical knowledge-time consuming process to reach maturity - decentration -process by which you become less and less dependent on egocentrism - realize individual has unique experience.
2 ConstructivismThe belief that children actively create knowledge rather than passively receiving it from the environment.Knowledge is constructed from experienceBorn with ability and desire to learn.Must be active to learn.Thinking/learning is internalization of physical knowledge.Piaget: constructivist: knowledge that the child acquires is constructed from the child’s experience - not innate.-born with ability and incentive to learn-must be active in order to learn-internalization of physical knowledge-time consuming process to reach maturity - decentration -process by which you become less and less dependent on egocentrism - realize individual has unique experience.
3 AdaptationFundamental process by which schemes are altered through experience.Comprised of two complementary processes.
4 Mechanisms of ChangeAssimilation: information that fits into existing cognitive structureschemasAssimilation: information that fits into existing cognitive structure - schemas (file folders).When children/adolescents encounter something reasonably similar to what they already know - assimilated into existing knowledge.
5 Mechanisms of ChangeAccommodation: changing beliefs to fit new conceptual informationAccommodation: changing beliefs to fit new conceptual information. Create new schemas.When children/adolescents encounter something that is different from what they know - they either ignore it or change their way of thinking to accommodate this new knowledge.
6 EquilibrationEquilibration: regulatory process that maintains a functional balance between assimilation and accommodation
7 Process of Equilibration Children are satisfied with mode of thought (equilibrium)Become aware of shortcomings in existing knowledge (disequilibrium)Adopt a more sophisticated mode of thought (return to equilibrium)
13 Preoperational Stage 2 to 6/7 years Representational skills Egocentric thought:Magical thoughtAnimism
14 Concrete Operational 6/7 to 11/12 years Qualitative Change: Operational thinking: mental actions that are reversibleReversibility: the ability to understand that actions that affect objects, if reversed in sequence, will return the objects to their original state.Decentration: the ability to comprehend more than one aspect of a problem at a time.
15 Concrete Operational Stage Logical, but concrete in their thinking, i.e., can think only in terms of concrete things they can handle or see.Conservation: the principle that attributes such as mass, weight, volume, etc. remain unchanged regardless of irrelevant changes in the external appearance of an object that have no effect on that attribute.
17 Cognitive Development Preoperational Stage - No conservation “Cut it up into A LOT of slices, Mom. I’m really hungry!!”
18 Formal Operations 11/12 years through adulthood Logical and abstract thought:Adolescent egocentrism: ElkindImaginary AudiencePersonal FableAdolescent egocentrism: have trouble separating your own thoughts and feelings from others.2 kinds (Elkind)imaginary audience - confusing your own thoughts with those of hypothesized audience.Personal fable - tendency to think you and your thoughts and feelings are unique.
20 EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY: Strengths Children do move from being more egocentric to less egocentricAlso move from being less systematic and able to use logic to being better able to think in these waysChildren do pass through stages in same orderConstructivistic view of development
21 Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory Findings may only work with Piaget’s tasksCan have skills characteristic of two stages at one time periodOnly 30-35% of adults reach formal operational stage
22 Vygotsky Soviet Psychologist Thought and Language, 1962 Sociocultural Approach
23 Sociocultural Approach Children are born with the fundamental cognitive and perceptual abilitiesInfants are active learnersIndividuals are products of culture
24 Influence of Speech on Development of Thought 3 Developmental PhasesSocial speechEgocentric speechInner speech
25 Zone of Proximal Development Psychological distance between children’s individual performance in problem-solving and potential for higher levels of performance when guided by more capable peers/adults.
26 CriticismsAssumes that the majority of interactions proceed in optimal fashion.Little research on individual differences in child-mother dyads.
27 Functional Activities to Facilitate ZPD Modeling behavior for imitationFeedbackContingency managementDirect instructionQuestioningTask structuringCognitive structuring