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Cognitive Development. Jean Piaget Constructivism Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development. Jean Piaget Constructivism Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Development

2 Jean Piaget Constructivism Theory

3 Kinds of Knowledge physical knowledge logico-mathematical knowledge social knowledge

4 Constructivism children are active learners, not passive observers organize their knowledge into schemes schemes change through –assimilation –accommodation

5 Stages of Cognitive Development children’s schemes change over time cognition develops in stages, not gradually each stage builds on accomplishments of prior stage

6 Sensori-motor Stage ages birth – 2 years old infant uses senses and motor abilities to explore first explorations are innate reflexes goal-directed behaviors object permanence

7 Substages of Sensori-motor Stage 1st: (birth - 1 mo) – innate reflexes, –circular reactions 2nd: (1-4 mo) –primary circular reactions 3rd: (4-8 mo) –secondary circular

8 Substages of Sensori-motor Stage 4th: (8-12 mo) –goal directed behavior –object permanence 5th: (12-18 mo) –tertiary circular 6th: (18-24 mo) –Symbolic representation

9 Preoperational Stage ages 2-7 child uses mental representations of objects play moves from using real objects to more complex play child’s thinking is perception- bound, egocentric, irreversible, centrated, intuitive, animistic

10 Concrete operations ages 7-11 child uses logical operations ability to –conserve –think flexibly –seriate –classify with more than 1 attribute and with hierarchical thinking

11 Conservation Tasks

12 Formal operations ages 12 and up child uses logical operations in a systematic fashion can think abstractly hypothetico-deductive thinking propositional thinking

13 Contributions of Piaget's Theories to Current Practice focus on active, hands-on learning play is important sensitivity to a child's current level of understanding acceptance of individual differences

14 Criticisms of Piaget's Ideas research methods underestimated/overestimated the abilities of children didn't adequately consider the role of culture and experience in children’s undertaking of his tasks stage theory

15 Lev Vygotsky Socio-cultural Theory

16 Importance of culture and society on a child’s learning –knowledge is socially constructed –culturally determined Importance of interactions with more-abled members of the society –zone of proximal development –scaffolding

17 Language is the foundation of all higher cognitive processes –private speech –inner speech Development is continuous, not occurring in stages

18 Contributions of Vygotsky's Theories to Current Practice opportunities for discovery and play opportunities social interactions for learning use of language to enhance conceptual development

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