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A2 Religious Ethics Revision Conscience 4. Sigmund Freud () ( 1856 - 1939 )

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Presentation on theme: "A2 Religious Ethics Revision Conscience 4. Sigmund Freud () ( 1856 - 1939 )"— Presentation transcript:

1 A2 Religious Ethics Revision Conscience 4

2 Sigmund Freud () ( )

3 best known for his analysis of the human psyche or mind

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5 He believed that the key to human behaviour was in people’s instincts and desires

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7 Behaving instinctively is often contrary to the interests of the community.

8 Freud Because of this, people disapprove of certain types of behaviour

9 Freud Remember the young child playing in the bath and his mother’s disapproval? Remember the young child playing in the bath and his mother’s disapproval?

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11 Consequently, instinctive desires and behaviour are suppressed from an early age

12 and individuals develop an EGO with which to interact with society

13 At the same time society’s disapproval of ‘inappropriate’ behaviour is internalised by the SUPER-EGO

14 Super-Ego? This internalisation deals with the ego’s suppressed anger and bewilderment at the requirements of society

15 Super-Ego? This internal suppression leads to the development of a guilty conscience

16 Super-Ego? Freud also suggested that a child identifies closely with its parent

17 Super-Ego? The ‘super-ego’ becomes an ‘inner parent’

18 Super-Ego? rewarding the good behaviour and punishing the bad

19 Super-Ego? Remember Hitchcock’s film, ‘Psycho’?

20 Super-Ego? “Yes, mother...” (even though she was no more than a mummified corpse!)

21 The Super-Ego divides into the Ego-IdealandConscience

22 Ego-Ideal represents the ‘rewarding’ parent leading to feelings of pride and satisfaction

23 Conscience represents the ‘punishing’ parent’ causes feelings of guilt and discomfort for immoral acts

24 Freud’s analysis of human behaviour is often seen to be discredited by his elaborate account of the effects of sexuality on the psychological development of human beings

25 However, others have developed Freud’s ideas

26 They argue that conscience develops through past experiences, especially those of childhood

27 Children learn their behaviour from their parents, carers and teachers

28 Parents encourage good behaviour and punish bad

29 The way they do this affects the moral development of the child

30 The admonishments can be displays of anger, disappointment or even controlled violence (i.e. a smack)

31 The child becomes anxious as it tries to avoid the displeasure of the adult

32 Eventually this anxiety is felt when the child even thinks about an immoral act

33 This - for Freudians and some modern psychologists - is the conscience


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