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1 The Psychological Models of Abnormality (there are three of these) Psychodynamic Behavioural Cognitive.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Psychological Models of Abnormality (there are three of these) Psychodynamic Behavioural Cognitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Psychological Models of Abnormality (there are three of these) Psychodynamic Behavioural Cognitive

2 Approaches to Psychopathology Explaining Abnormality from different Psychological Perspectives We have looked at one BIOLOGICAL approach to abnormality, and two PSYCHOLOGICAL approaches (behaviourist and cognitive). This is the 3 rd PSYCHOLOGICAL approach – the Psychodynamic!

3 The Psychodynamic approach to Abnormality… Basic Assumptions 1.ALL behaviour stems from UNCONSCIOUS forces 2.Our behaviour and feelings as adults are rooted in childhood experiences 3.ALL behaviour has a cause, and is therefore determined …about Abnormality 1.Mental disorders result from psychological rather than physical causes 2.Unresolved conflicts in the ‘Psyche’ cause mental disorders (a) 3.Unconscious motivations cause mental disorders (b) 4.Early experiences cause mental disorders (c)

4 The Psychodynamic Model Main assumptions: Psychological disorders are caused by emotional problems in the unconscious mind The causes of these emotional problems can usually be traced back to early childhood The relationship between child and parents is a crucial determinant of mental health

5 5 Psychodynamic Approach Main Assumptions: Assumption 1: E xperiences in our earlier years can affect our emotions, attitudes and behaviour in later years without us being aware that it is happening. Freud suggested that abnormal behaviour is caused by unresolved conflicts in the Unconscious. These conflicts create anxiety, and we use defence mechanisms such as repression and denial to protect our Ego against this anxiety. However, if defence mechanisms are over-used, they can lead to disturbed abnormal behaviour. Assumption 2: If repressed memories can be recovered from the Unconscious through psychotherapy, and if the patient experiences the emotional pain of these repressed memories, the conflicts will be resolved and the patient will be cured (catharsis & closure i.e. lancing the psychological boil). Modern psychoanalysis suggests patients must also come to understand these memories cognitively.

6 The Unconscious Mind The conscious. The small amount of mental activity we know about. The preconscious. Things we could be aware of if we wanted or tried. The unconscious. Things we are unaware of and can not become aware of. Thoughts Perceptions Memories Stored knowledge Fears Unacceptable sexual desires Violent motives Irrational wishes Immoral urges Selfish needs Shameful experiences Traumatic experiences Bad Worse Really Bad

7 Unconscious Mind (b) Freud suggests that the Unconscious mind exerts a powerful effect on behaviour, and that this often leads to distress as we might not understand why we are acting a certain way. This part of the mind is where we find memories, fears and unacceptable urges, needs and motivations

8 The Psyche Id: Instincts Superego: Morality Ego: Reality

9 Healthy Psyche IdSuperego Ego OK Guys – I’m in charge. Anything you want has to go through me. OK.

10 Neurotic Psyche Id Superego Ego Listen up! I’m in charge, and you are not here to enjoy yourselves. Get ready for a double-size portion of anxiety with a side order of guilt! No fun. >whimper<

11 Psychotic Psyche Id SuperegoEgo Sex! Food! Drink! Drugs! NOW! Who turned out the lights?

12 Psychopathic Psyche OK. First, gimme food. Then I want sex – lots of it and I don’t particularly care whether it’s with a willing partner. Then I want to hurt people. Badly. Probably be hungry again after that so… OK then. Let’s go.

13 Personality Structures … ID: irrational and primitive, demands immediate satisfaction and is ruled by the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE. EGO: conscious part of the personality that is rational and driven by the REALITY PRINCIPLE SUPEREGO: this is our conscience and our sense of right and wrong, it is morally driven.

14 Personality Structures … Explaining Abnormality… Id: If it’s impulses are not kept in check by the ego and superego, they are expressed by destructiveness and immorality. Superego: If this becomes too powerful it can be too restrictive on the Id and deprive it of acceptable pleasures Ego: If the ego is not fully developed, or if it is weak then another part of the psyche will take over. What disorders or types of abnormal behaviour do you think might result from problems with the Id, Ego and Superego

15 15 Recap: Psychosexual Stages of Development

16 Defence Mechanisms Unacceptable (latent) motives are channeled into more acceptable (manifest) thoughts and actions Aggression Sexual desire for parent Masturbation Playing with faeces Sport Sexual desire for partner Guitar playing Pottery

17 Psychological Disorders Psychological disorders are defence mechanisms against repressed emotional problems and impulses The symptoms of a disorder have a hidden meaning that can be decoded

18 Psychological Disorders DepressionAggression against the parents turned back in on the self AnxietyFear of something (e.g. sex) that is projected onto something innocuous

19 Which parts of the Psyche could Bart, Lisa and their parents represent…and why? Check your knowledge… How can conflict between the 3 parts of the Psyche lead to abnormal behaviour? If traumatic experiences occur in childhood, and they are dealt with by ‘repression’, where does Freud claim they go to, and how do they express themselves?

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