Presentation on theme: "Sigmund Freud & The Psychological Revolution. “Intentionalism” Before the Psychological Revolution Westerners generally believed that people were motivated."— Presentation transcript:
Sigmund Freud & The Psychological Revolution
“Intentionalism” Before the Psychological Revolution Westerners generally believed that people were motivated by their souls. Your higher nature was in competition with your baser nature.
What makes a person do bad things? Do you know it when you’re being bad? Do you ever delude yourself when you’re bad?
What is your mind?
What is the mind? Mr. Ritter?
The Freuds: Vienna, 1878 Sigmund (22) Jacob (63) Amalia (43) Emanuel (44)John (23) Rosa, Marie, Adolphine, and Pauline <20
The Structural Model: Id, Ego, & Superego
Id Present at birth Selfish part of you, concerned with satisfying your desires (hunger, thirst, aggression, anger, etc.). Pleasure principle Wish-fulfillment
The Structural Model: Id, Ego, & Superego Ego Develops during the first two years of life Primary job is to satisfy the id impulses in an appropriate manner by taking consequences into consideration. Reduces tension Child uses reason
The Structural Model: Id, Ego, & Superego Superego Develops by the time the child is 5 years old Represents society’s and parent’s values and standards. Conscience – right and wrong. Moral anxiety – ever-present feeling of shame or guilt.
Freud argued that the adult personality is formed by experiences from the first 5 or 6 years of life. Centers on sexual themes.
Oral Stage First 18 months of life. Mouth, lips, and tongue are primary erogenous zones. Traumatic experiences can include feeding or weaning problems.
Anal Stage When child reaches the age of about 18 months. Anal region becomes the most important erogenous zone. Traumatic toilet training may result in fixation and an anal personality. Anal Compulsive (Anal retentive) Anal Expulsive
Phallic Stage Occurs when the child is approximately 6 years old. Penis or clitoris become the most important erogenous zone. Oedipus Complex Castration Anxiety Electra Complex Penis Envy
Resolution of the Oedipus Complex Children repress their desire for their opposite-sex parent. They realize that they will never have them as long as the other parent is around. Upon resolution the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent. Development of the superego. Child adopts values and standards of the parents.
Latency Stage The time before the onset of puberty. Child demonstrates more self-control. Devoted more to intellect, not emotion Cognitive Skills Social Skills Boys and girls are fairly uninterested in one another.
Genital Stage Starts with puberty. Libido “attacks” the ego. Stress, anxiety, turmoil, and loss of confidence. Looking for one’s place and role in life. Getting free from one’s parents.
Freud & Dreams
Dreams are unconscious mental activity. Freud theorized that every dream contains two elements: Day residue Nocturnal stimuli Latent dreams are made up of unconscious wishes, childhood memories, day residue, and nocturnal stimuli.
Strengths and Criticisms of Freud’s Theories Strengths: Freud developed the first comprehensive theory of personality. Many personality theorists have deemed it necessary to point out where their theories differ from or correct weaknesses in Freud’s works.
Strengths and Criticisms of Freud’s Theories Criticisms: Many Freudian ideas appear in the literature that predates Freud’s work. Many of his hypotheses are not testable. Freud relied heavily on evidence from biased case studies. Freud refused to take into account the experiences that happened after 6 years of age and how they may influence personality.