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Psychology. Experimental psychology sets up experiments to see how individuals act Clinical psychology develops programs for treating individuals suffering.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology. Experimental psychology sets up experiments to see how individuals act Clinical psychology develops programs for treating individuals suffering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology

2 Experimental psychology sets up experiments to see how individuals act Clinical psychology develops programs for treating individuals suffering from mental illnesses & behavioural disorders

3 PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Sigmund Frued The mind is divided into 2 parts: The conscious (part were aware of) and the unconscious (part we are not aware of) Unconscious mind has more influence on personality & behaviour Can be further divided into 3 parts: The id encourages us to seek physical satisfaction The superego prompts us to do the moral thing The ego referees between the two and deals with external reality SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN PSYCHOLOGY

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5 Psychoanalytic Theory – contd Believe that criminal behaviour is caused by frustration stemming from early childhood experiences By treating the unconscious mind, one can alleviate neuroses (do this through dream analysis & hypnosis) Many criminals and people with neuroses can be treated successfully in this manner Freud felt that individual sexual satisfaction/frustration was the key element in personality development Highly influential in psychology He emphasized individual counselling Formed the basis of modern clinical psychology

6 Learning Theory Humans born with little instinct but much learning potential Most human behaviour is learned By controlling the way humans learn, society can have a great influence on a persons personality

7 Ivan Pavlov Experiments with dogs showed that it was possible to get a dog to associate the sound of a bell with the arrival of food At sound of bell, dog would salivate in anticipation B.F. Skinner Pigeons could be trained to peck at a particular coloured disk to get food rewards Rats received food rewards for pressing a bar in a complicated sequences

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9 this led theorists to believe that learning was a stimulus-response effect (if correctly stimulated, it will give the appropriate response) proposed that children who were brought up in loving families would grow up to become secure & loving adults

10 Alfred Bandura - Bobo the Clown experiment learning is a modelling experience (We tend to do what we see)

11 Behaviourism – a sub school of thought within learning theory Use behaviour modification to create change Psychologists can predict & control or modify human behaviour by identifying the factors that motivate it in the first place Emphasis on the early childhood years, & on the rules or practices parents use to raise their children Child-rearing methods have a huge influence on the character of individuals

12 John B. Watson Founder of behaviourism Used animal experiments to determine whether strict or flexible learning patterns are more effective Children should be brought up using a scientific, strictly scheduled, rules-based model

13 Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant- chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years. [Behaviorism (1930), p. 82

14 Benjamin Spock Believed that a permissive approach to child rearing would result in successful, well- adjusted adults Encouraged parents to be loving, flexible, and supportive


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