Presentation on theme: "Second Language Acquisition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Second Language Acquisition To Think About:Think about a baby acquiring his first language.Think about a person acquiring a secondlanguage.What similarities and differences are there in thetwo processes?
2 First and Second Language Acquisition Characteristics L1 Learner L2 Learnerconstructs language fromprior conceptual knowledge x xis an active learner who testsand revises hypotheses x xrequires interaction x xuses cognitive strategies(i.e., overgeneralization) x xunderstands more when input is modified(caretaker talk, foreign talk) x xdevelops language in predictable stages x xmakes developmental errors x xexperiences a silent period x x
3 Characteristics L1 Learner L2 Learner is usually made cognitively developed xgenerally has a greater knowledge ofthe world xgenerally can learn and apply rulesmore easily xusually has more control over input xhas an L1 as a resource xis familiar with one or more other cultures xmay have a problem withattitude/motivation xis more likely to be inhibited or anxious xAdapted from: P. Richard-Amato. (1996). Making it happen: Interaction in the secondlanguage classroom. P.27
4 Age and Second Language Acquisition To Think About:Is it better to learn a second language when one is young or when one is older?Why?
5 Critical Period Hypothesis The Critical Period Hypothesis states that and individual must acquire a language by a critical period or it will be difficult to acquire a language. This is in terms of First Language Acquisition.The main advantage to learning a language when younger is that the individual is more likely to acquire a native-like accent.
6 Proficiency: What is it? To Think About:When a person proficient in a second language?How do you know a person is proficient?
7 Proficiency: Sociolinguistic Competence Grammatical Competence Mastery of language codeLexiconWord formation rulesSentence formation rulesPronunciation rulesSpellingSociolinguistic CompetenceMastery of appropriate language use n different contexts
8 Discourse Competence Strategic Competence Mastery of how to combine meanings and forms to create a text in different modesExamples: telephone inquiry, argumentativeessays, recipesStrategic CompetenceMastery of verbal and non-verbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns in communication
9 Proficiency: How long does it take? To Think About:If you wanted to learn a second language, how long do you think it would take you to speak and understand that language? How long would it take you to read and write?
10 BICS ( Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) 2 to 3 yearsAbility to converse and understand every day discussionsCALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)5 to 7 yearsAbility to read, write, speak, and listen at an academic level
11 Stages in Second Language Acquisition Preproduction/Comprehension Stage CharacteristicsSilent periodCan respond non-verballyWill be able to understand more than they can produce
12 Early Speech Production Characteristics Early Speech Production Characteristics Can understand more than can produce Can produce one or two words at a time Will make lots of errors Interlanguage occurs (a mixture of vocabulary and structures from both languages
13 Speech Emergence Characteristics Will be able to understand more than they can produceInterlanguage continues to occurLonger utterancesDecreases in errors
14 Intermediate Fluency Characteristics Appear orally fluentErrors are same errors native speakers makeStruggle with content area reading and writing.
15 First Language Development To Think AboutDo you think the child’s first language is a hindrance or a help in terms of learning a second language?Why?
16 Common Underlying Proficiency/Transferability Theory Many skills and concepts are common or interdependent across languages.
17 Dual Iceberg Representation Surface Features Surface Featuresof L1 of L2CommonUnderlyingProficiency
18 What Literacy Skills Transfer? DirectionalitySequencingAbility to distinguish shapes and soundsKnowledge that written symbols correspond to sounds and can be decoded in order and direction
19 Activation of semantic and syntactic knowledge Knowledge of text structureLearning to use cues to predict meaningAwareness of the variety of purposes for reading and writingConfidence in oneself as a reader and writer
20 What Skills Do Not Transfer? Critical and Cultural Literacy(interpretation of text given a specific cultural world view)From: C. Roberts. (1994). Transferring literacy skills from L1 to L2: From theory to practice. In The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, v. p
21 Threshold Hypothesis One reason for this view is Interlanguage Bilingualism has been viewed as a handicap and a cause of cognitive confusion.One reason for this view is InterlanguageAnother reason has to do with theThreshold Hypothesis
22 Threshold Hypothesis: The better developed the L1, the better developed the L2 can be.High level of proficiency in L1-high level of proficiency in L2 is possibleA low level of proficiency in L1-lower level of proficiency in L2