Behaviorism What is behaviorism? Pavlov’s dog and pigeon’spigeon’s How does this apply to language learning? Parent, or interlocuter rewards correct utterances by child, incorrect utterances not rewarded. What’s the problem? Kids don’t repeat exactly what adults say!??!? Kids use and apply rules that are not taught.
Chomsky, Innatism What did Noam Chomsky suggest about language learning? LAD, Language Acquisition Device Kids, and adults hear language, Computer in the box decodes it Computer creates rules and sets parameters Computer can generate limitless combinations of grammatically correct utterances based on these rules.
Chomsky, Innatism What is the evidence for and against this theory? + Groups of people spontaneously form languages without overt planning, i.e. creoles + Brain damage to certain areas causes specific language problems with structure + Feral children - language must be directed at child for them to learn, watching TV alone won’t work!!!!???
Piaget Who is he? What did he suggest about language learning in kids? If you can’t think about it you can’t say it. Kids in Biling. education Seriation Compare objects of different size Object permanence = learning more vocab. Object permanence
Piaget What evidence is there against his theories? Hard to connect language learning with intellectual development after 18 months.
Input and interaction theories Do you talk differently to one and two year olds than 31 and 32 year olds? Why? Interactionists say Child Directed Speech is necessary for L1 acquisition Instead of LASS (Language Acquisition Support System) Instead of LAD (Language Acquisition Device
Input and interaction theories What evidence is there for and against this theory? + Language directed at children seems to affect acquisition. - Some cultures don’t use caregiver talk and they still acquire language. - Children generally pass through same stages across cultures.
Let’s vote Which of the theories best explains child L1 acquisition? Behaviorism Chomsky’s innatist approach Piaget’s cognitive theory Interaction and Input
Second Language Acquisition Who is this man?
Input Hypothesis What is input? Where does input go? LAD, the little black box. Basic Premise=with sufficient input at the i+1 level acquisition (Accurate use of Grammar, Listening, and Speaking) will result. NOTHING else is necessary. Input leads to speaking, no need to practice speaking. Let’s try it out. Listen to this input and tell me what you think.input i+1 or “comprehensible” input. Let’s try again. LADInputoutput Hola, ¿Cómo te llamas? No, preferiría que el presidente utilizara su poder de otro modo, por ejemplo El País, BBC Mundo, La voz de tu maestra
Affective filter What is affect? With whom do you feel the most comfortable or uncomfortable speaking your second language? Acquisition can only occur when the affective filter is lowered. LADInputoutput Hola, ¿Cómo te llamas? No, preferiría que el presidente utilizara su poder de otro modo, por ejemplo El País, BBC Mundo, La voz de tu maestra
Acquisition v. Learning Teaching grammar, Acq or Learn? Explicit teaching of grammar, examples??? Monitor When can you use the monitor? Natural order of acquistion, morpheme studies. LADInputoutput Hola, ¿Cómo te llamas? No, preferiría que el presidente utilizara su poder de otro modo, por ejemplo…… El País, BBC Mundo, La voz de tu maestra Monitor Pluperfect subj., pret. For one time events, a=la o=el
Input-Evidence +/- Positive evidence for language learners i.e. Hearing native speakers….in person, t.v. etc. Negative evidence for language learners.
Negative evidence for language learners, implicit or explicit. Child/Student: I seed the man. Parent/Teacher: No, we say “I saw the man.” NNS: There’s a basen of flowers on the bookshelf. NS: a basin? NNS: base NS: a base? NNS: a base NS: oh, a vase NNS: vase Which of these two interactions is more useful to the learner? Now which is more important generally in language learning, positive or negative evidence?
Swain and Comprehensible Output, what is it good for? Semantic use to syntactic use, How? Me dog like play pet Through output, receive feedback. Hypothesis testing Automaticity Practicing comprehension improves comprehension (DeKeyser & Sokalski 1996) Practicing output improves Production, Krashen?
Gass’s model of SLA What is the difference between the three middle stages? Eg. You hear, ¿Cuánto cuesta el sombrero? Then what happens? Where would you put these two? Noticing Gap Hypothesis testing