8Behaviorism What is behaviorism? Pavlov’s dog and pigeon’s How does this apply to language learning?Parent, or interlocuter rewards correct utterances by child, incorrect utterances not rewarded.What’s the problem?Kids don’t repeat exactly what adults say!??!?Kids use and apply rules that are not taught.
9Chomsky, InnatismWhat did Noam Chomsky suggest about language learning?LAD, Language Acquisition DeviceKids, and adults hear language,Computer in the box decodes itComputer creates rules and sets parametersComputer can generate limitless combinations of grammatically correct utterances based on these rules.
10Chomsky, Innatism What is the evidence for and against this theory? + Groups of people spontaneously form languages without overt planning, i.e. creoles+ Brain damage to certain areas causes specific language problems with structure+ Feral children- language must be directed at child for them to learn, watching TV alone won’t work!!!!???
11Piaget Who is he? What did he suggest about language learning in kids? If you can’t think about it you can’t say it.Kids in Biling. educationSeriationCompare objects of different sizeObject permanence = learning more vocab.
12Piaget What evidence is there against his theories? Hard to connect language learning with intellectual development after 18 months.
13Input and interaction theories Do you talk differently to one and two year olds than 31 and 32 year olds?Why?Interactionists say Child Directed Speech is necessary for L1 acquisitionInstead of LASS (Language Acquisition Support System)Instead of LAD (Language Acquisition Device
14Input and interaction theories What evidence is there for and against this theory?+ Language directed at children seems to affect acquisition.- Some cultures don’t use caregiver talk and they still acquire language.- Children generally pass through same stages across cultures.
15Let’s vote Which of the theories best explains child L1 acquisition? BehaviorismChomsky’s innatist approachPiaget’s cognitive theoryInteraction and Input
16Second Language Acquisition Who is this man?Has anyone heard of Stephen Krashen? Who was he?One of the few complete theories of SLA.Very controversial, out of favor with researchers but still very popular and oft quoted.Combined a set of theories/Premises about language learning to describe SLA.Understanding his theories will help us to understand the Natural Method more fully.
17Input HypothesisWhat is input?Where does input go?LAD, the little black box.Basic Premise=with sufficient input at the i+1 level acquisition (Accurate use of Grammar, Listening, and Speaking) will result.NOTHING else is necessary.Input leads to speaking, no need to practice speaking.Let’s try it out. Listen to this input and tell me what you think.i+1 or “comprehensible” input.Let’s try again.InputLADoutputEl País, BBC Mundo,La voz de tu maestraHola, ¿Cómo te llamas?No, preferiría que el presidente utilizara su poder de otro modo, por ejemplo
18Acquisition can only occur when the affective filter is lowered. What is affect?With whom do you feel the most comfortable or uncomfortable speaking your second language?Acquisition can only occur when the affective filter is lowered.InputLADoutputEl País, BBC Mundo,La voz de tu maestraHola, ¿Cómo te llamas?No, preferiría que el presidente utilizara su poder de otro modo, por ejemplo
19Pluperfect subj., pret. For one time events, a=la o=el MonitorPluperfect subj., pret. For one time events, a=la o=elAcquisition v. LearningTeaching grammar, Acq or Learn?Explicit teaching of grammar, examples???MonitorWhen can you use the monitor?Natural order of acquistion, morpheme studies.InputLADoutputEl País, BBC Mundo,La voz de tu maestraHola, ¿Cómo te llamas?No, preferiría que el presidente utilizara su poder de otro modo, por ejemplo……Explain some of the rules of ser vs. estarWhen use the monitor, time, reading, writing, good conscious understanding of rules
20Interaction Hypothesis Interacting drives lang. acquisition, NOT input alone.Interaction provides several benefitsLearn conversation patterns, turn taking, pragmaticsEvidenceHypothesis testing
21Input-Evidence+/-Positive evidence for language learnersi.e. Hearing native speakers….in person, t.v. etc.Negative evidence for language learners.
22Negative evidence for language learners, implicit or explicit. Child/Student: I seed the man. Parent/Teacher: No, we say “I saw the man.”NNS: There’s a basen of flowers on the bookshelf.NS: a basin?NNS: baseNS: a base?NNS: a baseNS: oh, a vaseNNS: vaseWhich of these two interactions is more useful to the learner?Now which is more important generally in language learning, positive or negative evidence?Which of these two interactions is more useful to the learner?
23Swain and Comprehensible Output, what is it good for? Semantic use to syntactic use, How?Me dog like play petThrough output, receive feedback.Hypothesis testingAutomaticityPracticing comprehension improves comprehension (DeKeyser & Sokalski 1996)Practicing output improves Production, Krashen?
24What is the difference between the three middle stages? Gass’s model of SLAWhat is the difference between the three middle stages?Eg. You hear, ¿Cuánto cuesta el sombrero?Then what happens?Where would you put these two?Hypothesis testingNoticing Gap