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“ The Law that changed the future of girls in America ” Title IX

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1 “ The Law that changed the future of girls in America ” Title IX

2 Benefits, Opportunities and Treatment  Equipment and supplies  Scheduling of practice and competition  Travel and per diem  Opportunities for coaching and academic tutors  Assignment and compensation of coaches and academic tutors  Locker room, practice and competitive facilities  Medical and training facilities and services  Housing and dining facilities and services  Publicity

3 Title IX No person in the United States, shall on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.

4 Education Programs and Activities Covered by Title IX Title IX covers state and local agencies that receive ED funds. These agencies include approximately 16,000 local school districts, 3,200 colleges and universities, and 5,000 for-profit schools as well as libraries and museums. Also included are vocational rehabilitation agencies and education agencies of 50 states, the District of Columbia, and territories and possessions of the United States.

5  Number of male/female participation slots  Total operating expenses for men’s and women’s sports  Number of male/female head coaches  Number of male/female assistants  Amount of athletics scholarship money allocated to males/females  Salaries for coaches  Amount of recruiting dollars for men/women

6 Title IX Timeline  1848: About 300 people gather in Seneca Falls, NY, in the first women’s rights convention in the United States.  1869: Congress approved the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, giving black men, but not black or white women, the right to vote.  1900: Women compete in the modern Olympics for the first time.  1920: States approve the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, giving women the right to vote.  1923: The Equal Rights Amendment is first proposed in Congress  1954: Edith Starrett Green is elected to Congress.  1958: Responding to an “education emergency” prompted by Russia’s launch of the satellite Sputnik, Congress passes the National Defense Education Act to improve education in math, science, and foreign language.  1963: Betty Friedan’s book, The Feminine Mystique, is published. Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, requiring employers to pay female and male hourly workers the same wages for the same work.

7 Timeline Continued  1964: Congress passes the Civil Rights Act to address racial discrimination. The act includes a provision barring employers from discriminating against women in employment.  1966: The National Organization for Women is formed.  1970: U.S. Representative Edith Green holds the first congressional hearings on women in education.  1971: The House of Representatives approves the Education Amendments, which include, Title IX, banning sex discrimination in education.  1972: The Congress approves the Equal Rights Amendments, sending it to the states for approval. The Senate approves Title IX. President Nixon signs the Education Amendments of 1972 Title IX into law.

8 Timeline Continued  1973: Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in the “Battle of the Sexes.”  1973 Casper Weinberger, secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, announces the proposed rules for Title IX, including that schools must offer sports for girls if they offer them for boys.  1975: President Ford approve Title IX rules.  1979: Hew introduces a three prong test to see if schools are really complying with Title IX.  1982:The ERA fails to win the support of thirty-eight states.  1988: Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, extending Title IX to all of a School’s programs, if the school receives federal money.  1999: Women’s soccer team fills huge stadiums on the way to winning the Women’s World Cup.  2003: After a year-long review of Title IX complaints against men’s wrestling and gymnastics, U.S. Secretary Rod Paige decides to leave the rules alone.

9 History of Women A 1909 cartoons warns of the troubles that will follow if women won the right to vote. @ The Library of Congress This 1910 postcard plays on fears about the effect women’s suffrage might have on family life. © Lake County Museum/Corbis.

10 Women’s March for Suffrage in 1916

11 For Members Only… The few women elected to Congress in the 1960’s had most of the same privileges as the men did, except one: They couldn’t use the congressional swimming pool and gym. Charlotte Reid of Illinois, Patsy Mink of Hawaii, and Catherine May of Washington tried to enter one day in 1967 and turned away because the men liked to swim in the nude.

12 Forty-six women who work for Newsweek announced today that they have filed a complaint against the magazine with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging sex bias–the first suit of its kind. Eleanor Holmes Norton, the employees’ attorney, read the complaint aloud at a press conference at ACLU’s New York office: March 16, 1970 “I have been far oftener discriminated against because I am a women than because I am black.” -Shirley Chisholm, U.S. representative 1969



15 President Obama Signs The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

16 Title IX Websites    Title IX athletic policies, Aug. 2002    tml tml 

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