Presentation on theme: "c Po Title IX."— Presentation transcript:
c Po Title IX
TITLE IX What is it? For Whom is it? Why Should I Care? What Does it Have to do With Equity?
TITLE IX No person in the United States shall on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educational programs or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
Title IX Title IX is a piece of legislation included in the Education Amendments 1972 that requires schools that receive federal funds to provide girls and women with equal opportunity to compete in sports.
Why was (and is) title IX needed? Females were frequently denied enrollment in traditionally male courses and activities. Women were denied equal educational and employment opportunities. Women were either not allowed to participate in sports or participate in sports that were not funded at the same level as men’s sports
What Does Title IX Cover? Admissions Access to Courses or Programs Includes Physical Education Counseling Student Rules and Policies Treatment of Pregnant or Parenting Students
Title IX Financial Assistance Student Housing Athletics Extra-Curricular Activities Employment Practices Sexual Harassment of Students and Employees
AREAS of Title IX Receiving the Most Attention Athletics Single Sex Classrooms Sexual Harassment Academic Achievement (Testing) Discipline (Rules and Policies)
Before Title IX Things were different. The primary physical activities for girls were cheerleading and square-dancing. Only 1 in 27 girls played high school sports. There were virtually no college scholarships for female athletes. And female college athletes received only two percent of overall athletic budgets.
How does an athletic department comply with Title IX Provide athletic opportunities to females and males Demonstrate that women have equal opportunity as a whole-not on an individual basis
Treatment of Athletes Treating male and female athletes fairly with respect to athletic scholarships means that the percentages of total athletic financial aid awarded to male and female athletes must be within one percent of their participation rates, unless a school can show why a bigger gap is not discriminatory. (Athletic financial aid includes any money given to athletes because they are athletes, such as grants-in-aid, loans and work-related grants.) Schools do not have to give the same number of scholarships to their male and female athletes, and the individual scholarships do not have to be of equal value. FOR EXAMPLE: If 40 percent of a school’s athletes are women, then female athletes should get between 39 and 41 percent of the total athletic scholarship money awarded by the school.
Treatment of Athletes
Title IX and Equity in Athletics Participation Treatment of Athletes Publicity
Treatment of Athletes: Equipment
Title IX and Equity in Athletics Participation Treatment of Athletes Travel and Daily Allowance
Title IX and Equity in Athletics Participation Treatment of Athletes Facilities Under Title IX, both baseball and softball programs are entitled to comparable facilities.
What positive effects has Title IX had on Women’s Sport? More women than ever competed in the recent Olympics. Women's professional Sports Increase in women's participation in high school an college sports Greater variety of sports for women
Title IX and Equity in Athletics Participation NCAA Participation Rates Participants: 412, % male; 42.6% female Teams: 17,682 Net Change – Since the academic year, female teams up 2,268, male teams up 273 Women’s teams up each of the last 25 yrs, while men’s teams have increased 7 of last 11 yrs 9,380 women’s teams; 8,302 men’s teams Average number of student-athletes per school: 232 men & 168 women Greatest team growth for women – soccer, golf, indoor track, cross country, outdoor track and softball Greatest growth for men – indoor track, cross country, baseball, basketball, lacrosse and soccer. Greatest losses of teams for men: wrestling, gymnastics, swimming/diving, fencing. NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Website:
Statistics 1 in 27 # of high school girls competing in sports prior to Title IX 1 in every 2.5 # of high school girls competing in sports today 3714 more women's teams on college campuses than there were in more men's teams 32,000 # of female college athletes in ,998 # of female college athletes today 8.7 The average number of women's teams offered per NCAA school in # of women's teams offered per NCAA school in % of total NCAA athletic budgets spent on ALL women's sports
Statistics AND it's not just about sports, it's about equal opportunity in all aspects of publicly-funded education. 7% of law degrees earned by women in % of law degrees earned by women in % of medical degrees earned by women in % of medical degrees earned by women in 2007
All things are still not totally equal The general perception is that girls now have equal opportunities in all areas of athletics. But that's just not true. Schools are providing 1.3 million fewer chances for girls to play sports in high school as compared to boys. While more than half of the students at NCAA schools are women, they receive only 44% of the athletic participation opportunities. Female athletes at the typical Division I-FBS (formerly Division I-A) school receive roughly: 28% of the total money spent on athletics, 31% of the recruiting dollars, and 42% of the athletic scholarship dollars. In 2008, only 43% of coaches of women's teams were women. In 1972, the number was over 90 percent.