Presentation on theme: "Title IX. What is Title IX? Title IX of the 1972 Educational Amendment “ No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation."— Presentation transcript:
What is Title IX? Title IX of the 1972 Educational Amendment “ No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. ”
More on Title IX Signed into law by President Gerald Ford in 1972 Affects Secondary Schools and Colleges
What does Title IX cover? Recruitment Admissions Athletics Counseling Employment Financial Aid/scholarships Facilities & Housing Course offering and access Educational programs/activities Health Insurance Benefits Marital & Parental Status Employment Assistance
Why was (and is) Title IX needed? Females were frequently denied enrollment in traditionally male courses and activities. Women were denied equal educational and employment opportunities Women like Patsy Takemoto Mink (Rep Hawaii) were not allowed in medical schools and were not hired by law firms.
Why was (and is) Title IX needed? Women did not receive equal pay for equal work in educational institutions (Teachers & Coaches) Women were not in administrative positions in secondary schools Perpetuating traditional gender roles
Why was (and is) Title IX needed? Girls and women were either not allowed to participate in sports or to participate in sports that were not funded at the same level as men ’ s sports
How has Title IX helped in Education? 1999 – Increase women taking math and science courses. Increase in the rate of women who want to attend college (surpassed men) Women have outnumbered men on college campuses since 1984 More women have completed Bachelors Degrees Increase in women in Medicine and Law.
What has happened in classes/athletics because of Title IX Classes must be organized on a coeducational basis Sex cannot be the criterion fro groupings in class Schools must provide equal opportunities for both sexes Schools and colleges must spend funds in an equitable manner
What has happened in classes/athletics because of Title IX No discrimination in respect to personnel standards for employment, promotion, retention, salaries, recruitment, job classification, or fringe benefits – based on –Sex –Marital status –Parental status
What has happened in classes/athletics because of Title IX Financial Aid must be awarded equitably – not because of sex Title IX takes precedence over state, local, an conference regulations If an institution receives federal aid – they must be in compliance
Where has Title IX received the greatest attention? Athletics
How does an Athletic Department comply with Title IX? Provide athletic opportunities to females and males in proportion to their academic enrollment Consistently expand enrollment for the underrepresented gender Show it fully and effectively meets the interests of the gender that is underrepresented www.now.org/nnt/05-97/titleix.html
How does an Athletic Department comply with Title IX? Colleges must annually submit a report on athletic participation Demonstrate that women have equal opportunity as a whole – not on an individual basis.
What positive effects has Title IX had on Women's sport? More women than ever competed in the most recent Olympics; Women ’ s professional Sports; Increased women ’ s sports participation in high school and in colleges; Increased participation in marching band; Increased scholarship, female enrollment, female post-secondary graduation
What positive effects has Title IX had on Women's sport? Greater variety of activities for women in sport – no longer just gymnastics, dancing, skating & cheering –1655: football –3032: wrestling –1610: baseball –5063: ice hockey
Con’s In order to share funding equally, many men’s teams are being cut or relegated to club status Men’s teams have lost scholarships to even out the numbers. Lower enrollment of males as a result of fewer scholarships. Loss of booster/sponsorship money as male teams are cut from schools.