Presentation on theme: "BIOMES. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES 1.Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. 2.Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants."— Presentation transcript:
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES 1.Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. 2.Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants grow in an area. 3.Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area. 4.Describe the characteristics of the worlds ten biomes. 5.Name and describe plant and animal adaptations unique to each biome. 6.Describe threats to each biome. 7.Name two threats to the forest biomes.
WHAT DEFINES A BIOME? Biomes are large groupings of ecosystems. Biomes are characterized by; 1. type of climate 2. type of plants 3. type of animals 4. many individual ecosystems.
TWO MAJOR TYPES OF BIOMES 1.Terrestrial (continental) 2.Aquatic (fresh and salt water) In this unit we will study terrestrial biomes.
PLANTS MAKE A DIFFERENCE Which plants grow in a biome determine which animals have adapted to use those plants. Plant adaptations include; 1. size – tundra, desert, rainforest 2. shape – small leaves, large leaves, water storage ability 3. color – green, brown, bright, dull
CLIMATE Climate includes; 1. temperature 2. precipitation 3. humidity 4. winds Temperature and precipitation are the most important.
HOW DOES LATITUDE AND ALTITUDE AFFECT A BIOME? Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator and is measured in degrees. Altitude is the height of an object above sea level. Climate varies with latitude and altitude. Climate get colder as latitude and altitude increase and the opposite as they decreas.
ALTITUDE VS LATITUDE ALTITUDE – Low to high Tropical- temperate-taiga-tundra-mountains LATITUDE – Equator to polar Tropical- temperate- taiga-tundra-polar
TYPES OF BIOMES As classified by latitude. Arctic or subarctic - tundra Subarctic or boreal - taiga Temperate cold – broadleaf and coniferous Temperate warm or sub-tropical – moist broadleaf and warm coniferous Tropical – moist broadleaf Note that desert areas are not included in this classification.
BIOMES BY TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL 1.Polar ice 2.Tundra 3.Taiga 4.Temperate forest 5.Temperate grassland 6.Mountains 7.Chaparral 8.Desert 9.Tropical savanna 10.Tropical rainforest
TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS 1.All are located near the equator 2.All help regulate world climate 3.All play vital roles in nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles 4.All are warm, humid, wet, and get sunlight year round. 5.Rainfall can be 200 – 450 cm per year 6.All have ideal climate for wide variety of organisms. 7.2.5 acres of tropical rain forest can contain more than 250 species, whereas in a temperate forest may contain several species.
RAIN FOREST CHARACTERISTICS 1.Nutrient poor soil, rapid decay causes most nutrients to be in plants. 2.Trees form buttress roots (above ground roots) used for extra support in thin soil. 3.Forest Layers a. emergent layer b. canopy c. understory
RAINFOREST THREATS 1.Land clearing a. slash and burn farming b. oil exploration c. mineral exploration – gold, gems, coal 2. Skins and feathers 3. Pet trade 4. Exotic woods
TEMPERATE RAIN FORESTS 1.Are found in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. 2.Heavy precipitation (200 – 350cm/ yr), high humidity, moderate temperatures (influenced by the closeness of the ocean) 3.Big coniferous trees – Douglas fir, Western red cedar, Mountain hemlock. 4.Mosses, lichens, epiphytes, fungi 5.Animals include large mammals and lots of snails and slugs. 6.More nutrients in the soil due to cooler temperatures slowing decomposition.
THREATS 1.Logging 2.Silting of water sources from logging.
TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTS 1.Deciduous – loses leaves each year. 2.Once covered large parts of North America, Europe, and Asia 3.Located between 30 0 and 50 0 north latitude. 4.Growing season 4 – 6 months 5.Weather can be extreme 0 0 to 35 0 C. 6.75 – 125 cm of rain each year 7.Commonly have deep rich soils 8.Plants grow in stories, but more light reaches the ground. Tall trees, shrubs, bushes, ferns, herbs, and mosses 9.All plants adapt to seasonal changes. 10.Animals – many migrate to avoid winter, others adapt to winter.
ADAPTATIONS 1.Plants adapt to survive the winter – bulbs, seeds, rhizomes. 2.Animals migrate to warmer climates or put on fat to survive the winter and find areas where food can be found. 3.Activity reduction to require less food.
TAIGA 1.Northern coniferous forest that is just below the arctic circle. 2.Winters are 6 – 10 months 3.Average temperature – 20 0 C 4.Forest floor is dark with little vegetation 5.Plants – conifer trees w/ narrow shaped, waxed leaves that do not lose water 6.Acidic soil
GRASSLANDS 1.Found in areas with less rain fall than forests. 2.Less rainfall means less diversity 3.Numbers of individuals of a specific species may be very large 4.Two types tropical and temperate grasslands.
TROPICAL GRASSLANDS 1.Commonly called SAVANNAS. 2.Most have wet and dry seasons 3.Most growth and reproduction take place during wet season 4.Dry season usually includes fires that return nutrients to the soil 5.Usually found in tropical and subtropical areas near the equatior
Savanna plants 1.Large horizontal roots systems 2.Vertical leaves or lose leaves 3.Adapted for rapid water absorption and retention during wet season 4.Adapted for rapid growth after fires. 5.Many have sharp thorns to ward off herbivores
Savannah animals 1.Typically many individuals of one species; elephants, antelope, giraffes, kangaroos, capybaras, tapirs, (herbivores). 2. Various types of carnivores that feed on the herbivores – usually types that hunt in groups. 3. Many insects and animals that feed on insects.
TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS 1.A biome dominated by grasses. 2.Hot summers and cold winters 3.50 – 88 cm of rain per year 4.Most fertile soil of any biome 5.Most have been replaced with farms 6.Found in the interior of continents 7.Normally have mountains surrounding them
GRASSLAND GRASSES 1.Rain determines type of grass a. Short grass prairie – 25 cm of rain b. Mixed grass prairie – 50 cm of rain c. Tall grass prairie – 88 cm of rain 2. Wild flowers are abundant in grasslands
CHAPPARAL 1.A type of temperate woodland biome 2.Dominated by broad-leafed evergreen shrubs. 3.Located in the mid-latitudes about 30 0 north and south of the equator. 4.Found mostly in coastal areas with a Mediterranean climate 5.Warm dry summers, mild wet winters.
CHAPARRAL PLANTS 1.Low lying evergreen shrubs and trees that tend to grow in patches. 2.Chamise, manzanita, scrub oak, olive trees, herbs (sage, bay) 3.Trees have small leathery leaves that retain water and produce oil – helps in fires that keep out taller trees.