2INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Describe how plants determine the name of a biome.Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants grow in an area.Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area.Describe the characteristics of the worlds ten biomes.Name and describe plant and animal adaptations unique to each biome.Describe threats to each biome.Name two threats to the forest biomes.
4WHAT DEFINES A BIOME? Biomes are large groupings of ecosystems. Biomes are characterized by;1. type of climate2. type of plants3. type of animals4. many individual ecosystems.
5TWO MAJOR TYPES OF BIOMES Terrestrial (continental)Aquatic (fresh and salt water)In this unit we will study terrestrial biomes.
6PLANTS MAKE A DIFFERENCE Which plants grow in a biome determine which animals have adapted to use those plants.Plant adaptations include;1. size – tundra, desert, rainforest2. shape – small leaves, large leaves, water storage ability3. color – green, brown, bright, dull
7CLIMATE Climate includes; 1. temperature 2. precipitation 3. humidity 4. windsTemperature and precipitation are the most important.
10HOW DOES LATITUDE AND ALTITUDE AFFECT A BIOME? Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator and is measured in degrees.Altitude is the height of an object above sea level.Climate varies with latitude and altitude. Climate get colder as latitude and altitude increase and the opposite as they decreas.
11ALTITUDE VS LATITUDE ALTITUDE – Low to high Tropical- temperate-taiga-tundra-mountainsLATITUDE – Equator to polarTropical- temperate- taiga-tundra-polar
12TYPES OF BIOMES As classified by latitude. Arctic or subarctic - tundraSubarctic or boreal - taigaTemperate cold – broadleaf and coniferousTemperate warm or sub-tropical – moist broadleaf and warm coniferousTropical – moist broadleafNote that desert areas are not included in this classification.
13BIOMES BY TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL Polar iceTundraTaigaTemperate forestTemperate grasslandMountainsChaparralDesertTropical savannaTropical rainforest
14TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS All are located near the equator All help regulate world climateAll play vital roles in nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cyclesAll are warm, humid, wet, and get sunlight year round.Rainfall can be 200 – 450 cm per yearAll have ideal climate for wide variety of organisms.2.5 acres of tropical rain forest can contain more than 250 species, whereas in a temperate forest may contain several species.
15RAIN FOREST CHARACTERISTICS Nutrient poor soil, rapid decay causes most nutrients to be in plants.Trees form buttress roots (above ground roots) used for extra support in thin soil.Forest Layersa. emergent layerb. canopyc. understory
28RAINFOREST THREATS Land clearing a. slash and burn farming b. oil explorationc. mineral exploration – gold, gems, coal2. Skins and feathers3. Pet trade4. Exotic woods
29TEMPERATE RAIN FORESTS Are found in North America, Australia, and New Zealand.Heavy precipitation (200 – 350cm/ yr), high humidity, moderate temperatures (influenced by the closeness of the ocean)Big coniferous trees – Douglas fir, Western red cedar, Mountain hemlock.Mosses, lichens, epiphytes, fungiAnimals include large mammals and lots of snails and slugs.More nutrients in the soil due to cooler temperatures slowing decomposition.
34THREATSLoggingSilting of water sources from logging.
35TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTS Deciduous – loses leaves each year.Once covered large parts of North America, Europe, and AsiaLocated between 300 and 500 north latitude.Growing season 4 – 6 monthsWeather can be extreme 00 to 350 C.75 – 125 cm of rain each yearCommonly have deep rich soilsPlants grow in stories, but more light reaches the ground. Tall trees, shrubs, bushes, ferns, herbs, and mossesAll plants adapt to seasonal changes.Animals – many migrate to avoid winter, others adapt to winter.
39ADAPTATIONSPlants adapt to survive the winter – bulbs, seeds, rhizomes.Animals migrate to warmer climates or put on fat to survive the winter and find areas where food can be found.Activity reduction to require less food.
40TAIGA Northern coniferous forest that is just below the arctic circle. Winters are 6 – 10 monthsAverage temperature – 200 CForest floor is dark with little vegetationPlants – conifer trees w/ narrow shaped, waxed leaves that do not lose waterAcidic soil
47GRASSLANDS Found in areas with less rain fall than forests. Less rainfall means less diversityNumbers of individuals of a specific species may be very largeTwo types tropical and temperate grasslands.
48TROPICAL GRASSLANDS Commonly called SAVANNAS. Most have wet and dry seasonsMost growth and reproduction take place during wet seasonDry season usually includes fires that return nutrients to the soilUsually found in tropical and subtropical areas near the equatior
49Savanna plants Large horizontal roots systems Vertical leaves or lose leavesAdapted for rapid water absorption and retention during wet seasonAdapted for rapid growth after fires.Many have sharp thorns to ward off herbivores
52Savannah animals Typically many individuals of one species; elephants, antelope, giraffes, kangaroos, capybaras, tapirs, (herbivores).2. Various types of carnivores that feed on the herbivores – usually types that hunt in groups.3. Many insects and animals that feed on insects.
55TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS A biome dominated by grasses. Hot summers and cold winters50 – 88 cm of rain per yearMost fertile soil of any biomeMost have been replaced with farmsFound in the interior of continentsNormally have mountains surrounding them
57GRASSLAND GRASSES Rain determines type of grass a. Short grass prairie – 25 cm of rainb. Mixed grass prairie – 50 cm of rainc. Tall grass prairie – 88 cm of rain2. Wild flowers are abundant in grasslands
65CHAPPARAL A type of temperate woodland biome Dominated by broad-leafed evergreen shrubs.Located in the mid-latitudes about 300 north and south of the equator.Found mostly in coastal areas with a Mediterranean climateWarm dry summers, mild wet winters.
68CHAPARRAL PLANTSLow lying evergreen shrubs and trees that tend to grow in patches.Chamise, manzanita, scrub oak, olive trees, herbs (sage, bay)Trees have small leathery leaves that retain water and produce oil – helps in fires that keep out taller trees.