2Lesson Objectives (1 of 2) Identify steps for surveying the scene.Discuss the importance of determining the mechanism of injury.Describe how to access victims in the following situations: water rescue, ice rescue, self rescue, electrical emergency rescueExplain what to do when responding to a motor vehicle crash or wildland fire.Describe how to approach a situation involving animals.
3Lesson Objectives (2 of 2) Explain the procedure for helping a person trapped in a confined space.Identify procedures for moving injured victims.Identify procedures for extricating an injured person from a difficult location.Explain how to seek help during an emergency.List the guidelines for evacuation.
4Approaching a Victim Conduct a 10-second scene survey. Try to determine the cause of any injuries.Mechanism of injury can help to determine extent or suspect hidden injuries.
5Mechanisms of Injury (1 of 2) Mechanism of injury will help you understand injury and its severity.Most injuries involve impact between a moving object and another moving object or a stationary object.
6Mechanisms of Injury (2 of 2) Consider questions such as:What was the distance of the fall?What direction and on what body part did the forces act?Are internal injuries likely?Is a spinal injury likely?
7Getting to VictimsNever attempt a rescue unless it can be accomplished without endangering the rescuers.
9Ice RescueFor victims near shore, extend a pole or throw a line with a floating object attached.For victims far from shore, lie flat and push a ladder, plank, or tree limb out to victim.Victims should attempt to get upper body onto the surface of the ice and lie flat.
10Electrical Emergency Rescue (1 of 2) Mild electrical shocks can cause serious injury or death.Low voltage (inside buildings): Turn off power.High voltage (power lines): If you feel a tingling sensation,STOPTurn around, raise one foot, and hop to safety.Wait for trained personnel.
11Electrical Emergency Rescue (2 of 2) Power line over a vehicle:Driver and all passengers should remain inside the vehicle.Instruct passengers to fold their arms and not to touch the inside of the vehicle.
12Motor Vehicle Crashes (1 of 2) Legal obligation in most states to stop and help if you are personally involved in a motor vehicle crashNo legal obligation to stop and offer assistance when you come upon a crash after it happens.Morally, you should stop and offer assistance, if needed.
13Motor Vehicle Crashes (2 of 2) What to doStop your car in a safe place and turn on hazard lights.Enter the vehicle through a door, if possible.If doors are jammed, ask someone inside to roll down a window.Stabilize the head and neck of unresponsive victims and those who might have spinal injury.Look and feel for injuries.Treat life-threatening injuries.
14Wildland Fires (1 of 2) Fire requires heat, oxygen, and fuel. Be aware of hazards.Safety depends on LCES principles:LookoutsCommunicationEscape routesSafety zonesWatch for changes.Plan your escape and safety zones.
15Wildland Fires (2 of 2) What to do Get everyone out and call for help. Use a fire extinguisher only if the fire is small and the escape route is clear.Throw water on burn victims.Remove burning clothing from victims if possible to do so safely.
17Animals (2 of 3) When threatened by an animal: Do not stare at the animal.Back away slowly.Speak quietly.
18Animals (3 of 3) When an animal attacks: Use food to lure animal away from victim.If animal backs off, move victim away.In general, fight back.In bear country, make noise as you travel and be cautious of mother bears with cubs.
19Confined Spaces Call for help. Activate EMS. Do not become a victim yourself.Try to rescue victim without entering the space.Administer CPR or first aid, if necessary.
20Moving a Victim (1 of 3) Move unstable victims only if: There is immediate danger.It is impossible to gain access to other victims.The victim's heart has stopped.
21Moving a Victim (2 of 3) Emergency moves Protect the spine. Use a shoulder drag to move a victim a short distance over rough terrain.
22Moving a Victim (3 of 3) Nonemergency moves One-person moves Two-or-more-person movesStretcher or litter
23Extrication From Difficult Locations Should not be attempted by one person or by groups who do not know what they are doing.Four to six experienced rescuers are needed to move victim safely.Lay victim flat on back; support head and neck, shoulders, and hips.Move the victim in stages.
24Seeking Help (1 of 2)Know how to contact local rescue group, sheriff, or police.When faced with an emergency, STOP:Stop and calm yourself. Do not panic.Think about the problem and proper course of action.Observe the situation.Plan course of action and coordinate with other rescuers.
25Seeking Help (2 of 2) Give EMS appropriate information: Victim’s locationYour name, victim’s name, family contactsNature of emergencyNumber of victimsVictim’s conditionConditions that may affect rescue effortsInformation about where you can be contacted
26Guidelines for Evacuation The victim’s health or survival may depend on your ability to move him or her from the scene.Know the conditions that necessitate evacuation.