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Chapter 2 Action at an Emergency. Lesson Objectives (1 of 2) Identify steps for surveying the scene. Discuss the importance of determining the mechanism.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Action at an Emergency. Lesson Objectives (1 of 2) Identify steps for surveying the scene. Discuss the importance of determining the mechanism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Action at an Emergency

2 Lesson Objectives (1 of 2) Identify steps for surveying the scene. Discuss the importance of determining the mechanism of injury. Describe how to access victims in the following situations: water rescue, ice rescue, self rescue, electrical emergency rescue Explain what to do when responding to a motor vehicle crash or wildland fire. Describe how to approach a situation involving animals.

3 Lesson Objectives (2 of 2) Explain the procedure for helping a person trapped in a confined space. Identify procedures for moving injured victims. Identify procedures for extricating an injured person from a difficult location. Explain how to seek help during an emergency. List the guidelines for evacuation.

4 Approaching a Victim Conduct a 10-second scene survey. Try to determine the cause of any injuries. Mechanism of injury can help to determine extent or suspect hidden injuries.

5 Mechanisms of Injury (1 of 2) Mechanism of injury will help you understand injury and its severity. Most injuries involve impact between a moving object and another moving object or a stationary object.

6 Mechanisms of Injury (2 of 2) Consider questions such as: –What was the distance of the fall? –What direction and on what body part did the forces act? –Are internal injuries likely? –Is a spinal injury likely?

7 Getting to Victims Never attempt a rescue unless it can be accomplished without endangering the rescuers.

8 Water Rescue

9 Ice Rescue For victims near shore, extend a pole or throw a line with a floating object attached. For victims far from shore, lie flat and push a ladder, plank, or tree limb out to victim. Victims should attempt to get upper body onto the surface of the ice and lie flat.

10 Electrical Emergency Rescue (1 of 2) Mild electrical shocks can cause serious injury or death. Low voltage (inside buildings): Turn off power. High voltage (power lines): If you feel a tingling sensation, –STOP –Turn around, raise one foot, and hop to safety. –Wait for trained personnel.

11 Electrical Emergency Rescue (2 of 2) Power line over a vehicle: –Driver and all passengers should remain inside the vehicle. –Instruct passengers to fold their arms and not to touch the inside of the vehicle.

12 Motor Vehicle Crashes (1 of 2) Legal obligation in most states to stop and help if you are personally involved in a motor vehicle crash No legal obligation to stop and offer assistance when you come upon a crash after it happens. –Morally, you should stop and offer assistance, if needed.

13 Motor Vehicle Crashes (2 of 2) What to do –Stop your car in a safe place and turn on hazard lights. –Enter the vehicle through a door, if possible. –If doors are jammed, ask someone inside to roll down a window. –Stabilize the head and neck of unresponsive victims and those who might have spinal injury. –Look and feel for injuries. –Treat life-threatening injuries.

14 Wildland Fires (1 of 2) Fire requires heat, oxygen, and fuel. Be aware of hazards. Safety depends on LCES principles: –Lookouts –Communication –Escape routes –Safety zones Watch for changes. Plan your escape and safety zones.

15 Wildland Fires (2 of 2) What to do –Get everyone out and call for help. –Use a fire extinguisher only if the fire is small and the escape route is clear. –Throw water on burn victims. –Remove burning clothing from victims if possible to do so safely.

16 Animals (1 of 3) Approach all animals with caution. Large animals might not retreat from humans. Small animals can be unpredictable. Be aware of potentially dangerous animals in the area. © AbleStock

17 Animals (2 of 3) When threatened by an animal: –Do not stare at the animal. –Back away slowly. –Speak quietly.

18 Animals (3 of 3) When an animal attacks: –Use food to lure animal away from victim. –If animal backs off, move victim away. –In general, fight back. –In bear country, make noise as you travel and be cautious of mother bears with cubs.

19 Confined Spaces Call for help. Activate EMS. Do not become a victim yourself. Try to rescue victim without entering the space. Administer CPR or first aid, if necessary.

20 Moving a Victim (1 of 3) Move unstable victims only if: –There is immediate danger. –It is impossible to gain access to other victims. –The victim's heart has stopped.

21 Moving a Victim (2 of 3) Emergency moves –Protect the spine. –Use a shoulder drag to move a victim a short distance over rough terrain.

22 Moving a Victim (3 of 3) Nonemergency moves –One-person moves –Two-or-more- person moves –Stretcher or litter

23 Extrication From Difficult Locations Should not be attempted by one person or by groups who do not know what they are doing. Four to six experienced rescuers are needed to move victim safely. Lay victim flat on back; support head and neck, shoulders, and hips. Move the victim in stages.

24 Seeking Help (1 of 2) Know how to contact local rescue group, sheriff, or police. When faced with an emergency, STOP: –Stop and calm yourself. Do not panic. –Think about the problem and proper course of action. –Observe the situation. –Plan course of action and coordinate with other rescuers.

25 Seeking Help (2 of 2) Give EMS appropriate information: –Victim’s location –Your name, victim’s name, family contacts –Nature of emergency –Number of victims –Victim’s condition –Conditions that may affect rescue efforts –Information about where you can be contacted

26 Guidelines for Evacuation The victim’s health or survival may depend on your ability to move him or her from the scene. Know the conditions that necessitate evacuation.


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