First Aid Awareness What is First Aid: First Aid is the assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance or qualified medical expert. It may involve improvising with facilities and materials available at the time. DOES NOT take the place of proper medical treatment.
First Aid In the U.S. every year: –2 million hospitalized due to injuries –140,000 die from injuries –500,000 die from heart attacks –150,000 die from strokes
Injuries The leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults Brain and spinal cord injuries: cause of death and permanently disabled Disabling injuries from unintentional causes: –One disabling injury every 2 seconds –One fatality every 6 minutes
Aim of First Aid P reserve Life Airway Breathing Circulation P revent Worsening Stop bleeding Treat shock Treat other injuries P romote Recovery Reassure Relieve pain Handle with care Protect from harm
First Aid Proper procedures may mean the difference between: –Life and death –Rapid or slow recovery –Hospitalization –Temporary disability or permanent injury
Qualities of First Aider Observant Tactful Resourceful Explicit Discriminating
Legal Aspects No one is required to render first aid unless: –You have already begun first aid procedures –Designated by employer –Pre-existing responsibility
Legal Aspects Once first aid has begun, you are not to leave until: –The victim is under the care of someone with equal or greater training –The victim refuses treatment or transportation If you do leave, you may be charged with: – ABANDONMENT
Protect-Examine-Alert You must assess the situation and 1 - Protect 2 - Examine 3 - Alert Only after having performed these 3 steps will you actually provide First Aid.
1 - Protect Protect yourself and the injured person Consider your health as well as the victim’s –Do not become a victim yourself Avoid another accident by eliminating the cause: –Turn-off the electricity to equipment –Have someone control traffic –Keep bystanders away from the scene of the accident –Extinguish fire if possible without putting yourself in danger –Protect yourself against blood borne pathogens (AIDS, Hepatitis) Break the circuit
Fundamentels of first aid a.The first rule of first aid and the primary concern is: Safety b.The second concern is, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he or she should: Not be moved
2 - Examine the victim Position the body –The victim must be lying On his or her back (if the victim is face down, roll him or her over onto his or her back) On a firm, flat surface –Kneel at the victim’s side –Remove any restrictive clothing from the victim’s chest area
2 - Examine the victim Check for responsiveness and unconsciousness Check for breathing Check for circulation Look for severe external bleeding
3- Alert: When to Phone for Help Ask for help whenever: –Someone is seriously ill or injured –You are not sure what to do Examples of someone who is seriously ill or injured: –Does not respond to voice or touch –Has chest discomfort –Has signs of stroke –Has a problem breathing
3 - Alert Call 112 or the local emergency number: give your location tell your telephone number describe nature of emergency (fire, explosion, drowning, fall, motor vehicle accident, etc.) tell them number of victims involved describe seriousness of injuries advise of hazardous material involvement Do not hang up until you are sure that the person at the other end has all the info and have them repeat the address to send assistance.
Make CPR (if necessary) Place in the Recovery Position Keep under Observation (until emergency services arrive)