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Unit 13: Part 2 Japan, Pearl Harbor and War Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 13: Part 2 Japan, Pearl Harbor and War Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 13: Part 2 Japan, Pearl Harbor and War Section 1

2 Japans ambitions in the Pacific “Co-Prosperity Sphere of Influence” With the fall of France and Britain under siege, colonies in Pacific are unprotected. July, 1941: Japan takes over French bases in Indochina (today Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)… threatens move on Dutch East Indies need oil, rubber, tin

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4 U.S Reaction to Japanese Aggression FDR freezes Japanese assets in the U.S. Places embargo on sales of scrap steel and aviation fuel to Japan

5 U.S. breaks Japanese secret communications code  Learns that Japan is preparing for a strike - Did not know from where attack would occur  Peace talks fail - Dec. 6 th : Japan rejects U.S Sec. Of State Cordell Hull’s proposal to release Japanese assets in return for Japan’s withdrawal from China and French Indochina…

6 Japan Attacks the United States

7 Pearl Harbor: Home of the U.S. Pacific Fleet

8 Japanese planes prepare to take off for the Pearl Harbor attack

9 Torpedo exploding into USS West Virginia, as seen from Japanese plane

10 USS Utah took a torpedo hit and capsized early in the battle The wreck remains at Pearl Harbor

11 U.S.S. Arizona

12 “A date that live in infamy…”

13 American casualties: 2403 killed, 1,178 wounded 21 ships; 300 aircraft damaged or destroyed

14 US Enters the War December 8, 1941 US declares war on JapanDecember 8, 1941 US declares war on Japan December 11, 1941 Germany declares war on the United StatesDecember 11, 1941 Germany declares war on the United States jpg FDR

15 Americans join war effort Demand for GI’s 5 million volunteered 10 million drafted Labor shortage at home  6 million women join labor force  2 million minorities hired

16 American Industry responds Automobile plants were converted to build tanks, armored vehicles, etc. Factories across nation convert to war production Shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser –Liberty ships, tankers, carriers

17 The American Homefront The United States government stirs patriotic feelingsThe United States government stirs patriotic feelings Movies are used to build moraleMovies are used to build morale Propaganda is used to keep war effort going:Propaganda is used to keep war effort going: 1.Bugs Bunny Racist Propaganda Bugs Bunny Racist PropagandaBugs Bunny Racist Propaganda People rationed goods/supplies and started Victory GardensPeople rationed goods/supplies and started Victory Gardens

18 Continued War Effort

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20 Women Enter the Workforce War_Job_LG.jpg

21 Japanese Americans Interned Japanese-Americans (Nisei)Japanese-Americans (Nisei) Thousands of Nisei were forced into internment camps in the West & SouthwestThousands of Nisei were forced into internment camps in the West & Southwest

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23 Internment Camp Poston, AZ

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25 End of Sec. 1 Notes HW: read Sec 1 of Required Reading and do the worksheet…. You can find both of these docs on my Web page

26 With the U.S. now at war: We’ll divide our study of the war into 2 geographic areas: Section 2 The Eastern Theater of Operations (the ETO)…Europe and No. Africa Section 3 The Pacific Theater of Operations (the PTO)

27 The Nazis had broken their pact w/USSR: Operation Barbarossa (June 1941)

28 By 1942 : War not going well for the Allies: –Germany controlled all of Europe and N. Africa and were deep into Russia

29 Gloomy Prospects for the Allies  The chain of spectacular victories disguised fatal weaknesses within the Axis alliance:  Japan and Germany fought separate wars, they never coordinated strategies.  The early defeats also obscured the Allies’ strengths:  The manpower of the Soviet Union and the productive capacity of the United States.

30 Turning Points of the War: The Battle of Stalingrad The Pivotal battle in the war in Europe –Enemy at the GatesEnemy at the Gates The German Army (“Wehrmacht”) had already lost 2 million men on the eastern front. In , a German army of over 300,000 was defeated and captured at the Battle of Stalingrad. After losing a massive tank battle at Kursk, the Germans began a long retreat home… The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944.

31 Stalingrad House by house… Brick by brick

32 North Africa: El Alamein In 1942 German forces tried to seize Egypt and the Suez CanalIn 1942 German forces tried to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal American invasion: “Operation Torch”American invasion: “Operation Torch” Yanks and Brits drove Germans outYanks and Brits drove Germans out Turning point in N. Africa: El AlameinTurning point in N. Africa: El Alamein

33 Defeat of Italy (1943) Invasion of Sicily opened door for invasion of Italy Invasion of Sicily opened door for invasion of Italy Allies fought their way north up the “boot” Allies fought their way north up the “boot” Mussolini forced to flee… captured, executed, and hung by his heels by anti-Mussolini Italians Mussolini forced to flee… captured, executed, and hung by his heels by anti-Mussolini Italians

34 Sec. 3

35 The Doolittle Raid (April 1942) Col. Jimmy Doolittle (related to me!) put together mission to bomb Tokyo & other targets IN Japan Bombers taking off a carrier? Military value? Not much Psychological value? HUGE morale boost for American public Movie Trailer: Thirty Seconds Over TokyoThirty Seconds Over Tokyo

36 The Pacific Theater: Early Battles American Forces halted the Japanese advance in two decisive naval battles. –Coral Sea (May 1942) U.S. stopped a fleet carrying Japanese troops to New Guinea Japanese designs on Australia ended –Midway (June 1942) Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers

37 U.S. strategy to defeat Japan:“Island-hopping” No need to capture EVERY island… “hop” over some, leaving Japanese troops isolatedNo need to capture EVERY island… “hop” over some, leaving Japanese troops isolated 1 island chain after another1 island chain after another

38 Allied Island – Hopping ( )

39 U.S. Marines assault an island

40 Europe: Operation Overlord Stalin had pressed FDR and Churchill for over a year to open a 2 nd front against the Nazis…a cross-Channel invasion All logistics in place for the invasion of Normandy, France in June, 1944

41 June 6, 1944: D - Day Combined American, British, Canadian assaultCombined American, British, Canadian assault Dwight D. Eisenhower: Supreme Allied CommanderDwight D. Eisenhower: Supreme Allied Commander

42 Invasion of Europe (con.t) Allies cont. drive into France…by Aug., 1944: liberation of Paris

43 The Allies Advance Into Holland: “Operation Market Garden” Into Belgium: Nazis mount major counter-offensive Battle of the Bulge

44 Germany’s Defeat Americans advanced into Germany from the west while the Russians closed in on Berlin from the east American and Russian soldiers meet at the Elbe River

45 Berlin 1945

46 Hitler’s Last Days In the underground bunker: committed suicide with companion Eva Braun With Berlin in ruins, the Nazis surrendered May, 1945 Victory in Europe at last

47 Time Magazine cover

48 Allies learn of the Holocaust: A Nazi Labor Camp Somewhere in Germany From: Band of Brothers (HBO, 2001)

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50  The Allied Leaders met several times during the War to discuss goals and to map strategy :

51  The most important conference was at Yalta: Churchill, FDR, & Stalin  The Allies were clearly winning the war and the end seemed near. The questions of what would happen once Germany was defeated were of huge importance: Yalta Conference: Feb. ‘45

52  Stalin claimed that historically, Poland had been used as a corridor to invade Russia…  He therefore believed it was critical that Poland become a “buffer zone”, meaning that a Polish gov’t friendly to Russia was necessary  Translation: “friendly” gov’t = communist gov’t.  The Big 3 agreed that free elections were to be held in Poland…let the people decide

53  A 2 nd point: USSR would enter war against Japan once Germany was defeated  A 3rd point: Germany would be divided and occupied by the Allies  Other points of agreement:  War-crimes trials  Further discussion on creating a United Nations

54  In the Berlin suburb of Potsdam:  Churchill  Truman (FDR had died)  Stalin

55  Stalin balked at free elections in Poland  Discussed specifics of Germany’s occupation after the war

56  The capital city which lay entirely in the Russian zone of occupation was ALSO divided into 4 zones

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58 After V-E Day: War in the Pacific  Focus turns to Japan  US continues “island-hopping” strategy  Goal: control of islands close enough to Japan to stage bombing raids

59 Iwo Jima and Okinawa

60 FDR had died in office and new President Harry S. Truman learned of a new weapon. He ordered it to be used

61 Atomic Bomb

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63 No surrender: Japanese military attempted a coup to seize power from the Emperor…wanted to continue to fight Aug. 9 th : 2 nd bomb on Nagasaki

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65 Victory Over Japan Day

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68 Quint's monologue (Jaws, 1976) The U.S.S. Indianapolis


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